Factors Affecting Reinforcement And Reinforcement

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Factors affecting punishment: Like the concept of reinforcement, punishment consists of two subcategories; positive punishment and negative punishment. Positive punishment is the addition of an aversive stimulus that results in the decrease of the target behavior. Negative reinforcement is the removal of a reinforcing stimulus resulting in the decrease of that behavior. Negative punishment often takes the form of response cost or time-out from positive reinforcement. Response cost is the permanent removal of a predetermined amount of reinforcing stimuli, while time-out is the temporary removal of a reinforcing stimuli for a predetermined amount of time. Punishment contingencies exhibit a rapid decrease in problem behavior that is of higher …show more content…
There is negative correlation between the density of the reinforcement schedule and response suppression. The greatest decrease in response is found when an extinction contingency is used along with the punishment contingency. The type of punishment schedule used along with reinforcement also determines the effectiveness of the contingency. A variable ratio schedule of punishment produces more response suppression when used along with the reinforcement schedule maintaining the behavior, than an variable-interval punishment schedule. Research is controversial on the relationship between reinforcement and punishment contingencies. This is due to the complexity of the relationship, and the abundance of uncontrollable variables. For example, social reinforcement may be difficult to control in a classroom setting. Thus, punishment should be delivered on a continuous schedule with a low magnitude of punishment, when the reinforcement cannot be withheld …show more content…
Effects of the punishment may transfer to the natural setting if the stimuli present during the treatment are physically similar to the stimuli present during generalization. There is a lack in research in this area that is applied to humans. Factors that influence generalization of punishment effects include intensity, amount, schedule, saliency, presence of the therapist, and other parameters of punishment or reinforcement. Responding may recover when testing generalization due to the repeated presentation in the absences of the punisher. However, there are suggested techniques to enhance generalization. These include pairing naturally occurring consequences with the punisher, teaching the individual about self management, alternating stimulus conditions during treatment, use salient discriminative stimuli for punishment, consistently using reinforcement, and using intermittent punishment. It is advised, due to lack of research, that punishment be delivered consistently in all

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