Own Name Condition Analysis

Decent Essays
In this article, the researchers studies the effect that an auditory signal has on one’s perception of another individual’s eye gaze. The researchers talk about how people are born with the ability to differentiate between direct and adverted gaze, and this ability becomes increasingly important throughout adulthood. Another important social signal has to do with a person’s auditory system. In infancy, children become sensitive to hearing their own name and to being spoken to in a slow, deliberate manner. Theses auditory signals often occur at the same time as direct eye contact. The researchers in this study are trying to determine if there is, and how strong of, a correlation there is between hearing your own name and your perception …show more content…
They called this ranges the “cone-of-gaze” values. They used a repeated measures analysis of variance to discover that there was a significant effect regarding the different two conditions. The own-name condition analysis showed a wider cone of gaze. The F-test for the two conditions equaled 4.61, with a p value of less than .05. The average for that conditions was 7.5 pixels with a standard error of 0.47. The average for the other-name condition was 6.8 pixels, with a standard error of 0.41. Although there was a greater difference between the rightward deviations for the two conditions than the leftward deviations, it was not significant according to the t-test (t(16)= -1.03, p=.32, two-tailed. The researchers then went on to discount the notion that the participants showed a bias to label gaze as direct when they heard their name. They used a 2 X 4 ANOVA with the two conditions and four gaze deviations to conclude …show more content…
The results show that there is a connection between the auditory and visual modalities. In this particular case, the researchers showed that calling a person’s name has an influence on how that perceive perceives the speaker’s gaze. The overall conclusion was that when the condition of calling the participants name was used, the participants reported to see a direct gaze for a larger range of gaze deviations, compared to when they heard a control name. This effect was seen the most clearly at the gaze deviation of 4 pixels, rather than 7 or 10. This deviation was the closest related to direct gaze, and these results support the claim that facial expression has a greater influence on how people perceive gaze when it is difficult to discriminate. There is also a reciprocal effect. This shows that when the desired signal is difficult to determine (gaze), a signal from a different modality (hearing one’s name) has a greater influence overall. Then, the researcher suggests the possibility of examine the opposite conditions, namely, how an unclear auditory signal (muffled name) would be influenced by clear, direct

Related Documents

  • Decent Essays

    The table 4.6 shows the result of SEM Model Fit. Measuring the Chi-square is the first step to indicates wheter the model fits the data or indicates the different between the estimated population covariance and the sample covariance. The smaller value of Chi-square means the value are more better. As seen from the table above the Chi-quare value is 0.000 which means the value is significant. The value also means that the difference of estimated population covariance and the sample covariance is very low, or can be concluded as equal.…

    • 1896 Words
    • 8 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    The result of a R² = 0.449 means that the best fit equation for the data shows a correlation lesser of 50%. It therefore indicates a somewhat "weak" relationship hence not a good fit. Figure 5: Good fit: Residual plots showing a random pattern A key part of statistical modelling is examining residuals. By carefully looking at the residuals, assumptions become either reasonable or unreasonable which in turn determines whether the model in itself is appropriate. Residuals are the differences between the observed and predicted values.…

    • 1040 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    Memory Interference

    • 1389 Words
    • 6 Pages

    Osgood describes the two factors involved in this theory in the following way, “one factor is the competition of original and interpolated responses at the point of recall and the other is the unlearning of the original responses during interpolation”. As the experimental group’s second set of information had similar meaning to that of the first set, these two factors may have been the cause for retrieval failure. It is a possibility that the reliability of these results may have been effected by the fact that some individuals have more effective recall skills than others. As the results were recorded in averages, a participant who scored highly may have had a significant effect on the overall average of their group. The effects of retroactive interference is seen in Figure 2 of the results.…

    • 1389 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    TRU3

    • 2482 Words
    • 10 Pages

    While Corrected Item-Total Correlation of TRU1, TRU2 and TRU4 are between 0.571 and 0.635; which meet the standard of greater than 0.5. In addition, Cronbach's alpha if Item Deleted of these items also satisfy standard of less than overall Cronbach's alpha (0.689). On the contrary, the Corrected Item-Total Correlation of TRU3 is relative low (0.178) which indicates it do not measure the same thing the rest TRU. It might lead us to remove this item. Actually, removal of TRU3 leads a significant improvement in Cronbach's alpha which increases the overall total from 0.689 to 0.827.…

    • 2482 Words
    • 10 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    Analysis Of Variance

    • 1822 Words
    • 8 Pages

    Interestingly, the mean amplitude of Graph 2 shows slightly a significant change between modality, the paired samples t-test provided no significant effect except FC2. The source memory over FC2 was the most positive waveform of FN400 than others (Graph 2). Thus, it has been found that acoustic brands had a larger negative amplitude than visual brands at FC2, even though the amplitudes not seen in this Graph 2 due to more positivity, paired samples t-test found a significant difference t(30) = 2.31, p = .028, but not at F1 t(30) =1.48, p = .153 (Figure 2, Graph 2). As a conclusion, the modality effect could not determine according to peak amplitude except FC2 which visual brands had larger positive peak than…

    • 1822 Words
    • 8 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    Psychologist Richard Gregory believes that perception is a positive process which depends on Bottom-up processing ‘perception is a hypothesis Gregory (1970). Perception involves making influences about making influences about what we see and try to make the best guess out of it. When we look at something, we develop a perceptual theory, which is based on the knowledge that we already have. Richard Gregory believes that our perceptions of the world are theories based on previous experiences and stored information as a lot of hypothesis testing to make sense of the information presented to the sense organs. Bottom-up processing is also known as data-driven processing, this is because perception arises with the stimulus itself.…

    • 1078 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    By choosing a group design, they allowed for multiple variables to be present in the study, which provides a more holistic understanding of the issues involved with bilingual aphasia. When looking at the demographic data, it appears to provide enough information to understand the variables involved with the individuals. The researchers sufficiently matched the individuals in that they were all exhibiting the same cortical aphasia, and they all had Spanish as a primary language, while English was the secondary language. However, as they mentioned in the discussion section, there may have been some issues with when the participants first acquired English. This may have had an influence on the treatment results.…

    • 2043 Words
    • 9 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    Treisman Attention Model

    • 1333 Words
    • 6 Pages

    The intensity threshold required for recognition also plays a part. A word is perceived if its stimulus intensity remains sufficiently high after the filter to exceed its recognition threshold: this is denoted by the long arrow reaching the perceptual channel in the figure. Other stimuli are attenuated too much to reach their recognition thresholds. Treisman thought of as a two stage filtering process: firstly, filtering based on incoming channel characteristics, and secondly, filtering by the threshold settings of the dictionary units. Treisman proposed attenuation theory as a means to explain how unattended stimuli sometimes came to be processed in a more rigorous manner than what Broadbent's filter model could account for.…

    • 1333 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    Distmo Case Study

    • 1612 Words
    • 7 Pages

    Similar patterns were obtained for RF and VL. The moments and forces were overestimated for RF and underestimated for VL. However, for these two muscles the variations between GenMo and DistMo, respective CenMo were smaller in comparison with VI and VM. The under- and over-estimations of the generic model for Subject1 with respect to DistMo and CenMo were for RF and VL: 3.79% and 4.25% for RF, and 8.84% and 4.37% for VL. Comparable under- and over-estimations were obtained also for the other subjects.…

    • 1612 Words
    • 7 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    Exam Performance Analysis

    • 1275 Words
    • 6 Pages

    t-test of Male and Female Exam Results Equal variances were assumed as male and female variances are similar. The null hypothesis, that the difference between male and female results was 0, was not rejected (0.50 is greater than 0.05 at 5% significance) for the alternative hypothesis, that the difference between male and female results would be greater than 0. Therefore, there is insufficient evidence that males outperform females on exams. The effect of lecture attendance on exam results was also examined using a two-sample t-test. Table 5. t-test of Exam Results with High and Low Lecture Attendance At 5% significance, the highlighted one-tail p-value of 0.002 is smaller than 0.05.…

    • 1275 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Decent Essays