Explain the Teleological arguments
The word teleological originates from the Greek ‘telos’ meaning end or purpose. It infers the existence of God from a particular aspect or character of the world, namely the presence of order, regularity and purpose, and thus, is most commonly known as the design argument; it postulates the idea of a designer for all that has been designed. As its name suggests, the teleological argument attempts to seek the ultimate end or purpose.
Furthermore, the teleological argument holds the belief that this designer is the primary cause of such existences, and is therefore what Aristotle would believe to be the ‘uncaused cause’, the ‘unmoved mover’. It is never assumed that this initial cause could be God, yet
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His initial premise was that it is an unsound analogy. The argument makes a consistent comparison between the machine and the world; thus, the greater the similarity, the stronger the argument and the weaker the similarity, the weaker the argument. Hume however, said that the two analogies are far apart. He posed that our world is not like a machine at all; it is composed of vegetables and animals, therefore proving it more organic than mechanical. Primarily the difference is that a design requires a designer, and a man-made formation such as a machine can bear witness to creation; the world on the other hand generates much speculation as to whether there is actually a designer or whether it is simply the product of chance. Hume’s second assumption was that similar effects do not necessarily imply similar causes; his basic premise was the formation of the opposing question, why should not similar effects be the result of different causes? Then there were of course other possible analogies that cause one to question the teleological proposition; similarly to Hume’s argument for the world as a machine, one could argue that the world is like a giant carrot, caused by generation or vegetation. This dramatic view initially appears absurd, yet it is equally absurd to compare the world to a machine. The idea of Darwinism had not yet been accumulated before Hume’s demise, but theorists claim that Hume would have followed and supported Darwin’s evolutionism