Explain Mendel Genetic Principles: Segregation And Independent Assortment

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1. Explain Mendel 's genetic principles (segregation and independent assortment.
According to “the essentials of physical anthropology” that the principle of segregation, for any particular trait which mean that genes occur in pairs because chromosomes occur in pairs, and during gamete production, members of each gene pair separate so each gamete contains one member of a pair that the pair of alleles of each parent separate and only one allele passes from each parent on to an offspring. Which allele in a parent 's pair of alleles is inherited is a matter of chance. We now know that this segregation of alleles occurs during the process of sex cell formation that during fertilization, the full number of chromosomes is restored and members of
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For example, of having stabilizing selection, directional selection, disruptive selection, and sexual selection. Mutation is a molecular alteration in genetic material. Mutation has evolutionary significance it must occur in a gamete (sex cell) such as carried on one of the individual’s chromosomes. For example, during meiosis the chromosome carrying the mutation will assort giving a 50% chance of passing the allele to an offspring which mean time fixation or loss of a mutation form one dividable is around 10x generation or more. Gene flow is the exchange of genes between populations. If individuals move temporarily and mate in the new population (leaving a genetic contribution), they don’t necessarily remain in the population. For example, a population of moths with a high frequency of white alleles enter a population of darker-colored moths. Over time, more and more white moths are born as a result. Or the offspring of U.S. soldiers and Vietnamese women represent gene flow, even though the fathers returned to their native population. Genetic drift is directly related to population size. Genetic drift occurs when some individuals contribute a disproportionate share of genes to succeeding generations. Drift may also occur solely because the population is small: Alleles with low frequencies may simply not be passed on to offspring, so they eventually disappear from the

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