Explain Marx's Basic Ontological Assumptions About Humans And The Nature Of Society

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Marx’s basic ontological assumptions about humans and the nature of society
Ontology relates to the questions of being and reality. Marx ontologically assumed that humans are altruistic, material creatures and are creative in nature. He explains that humans meet fundamental requirements by creating necessities such as food and shelter out of the environment. Producing these items and structures expand the human capabilities and can be seen as a mode of self-expression. Marx elaborates on these necessary tasks by relating it to the workforce and stating that work should not be regimented and monotonous, but original and personally significant. Work should be something that we want to do rather than have to do. As classes are formed and work
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He talked about the alienation of labor. It was more philosophical, for it described how the worker becomes separated from their work, other workers, the product, and themselves if he or she does not have control over the object’s production. The employee is not working up to their “full potential” because the work habits repetition, it is not creatively controlled, and coworkers become competitors.
Middle Marx is generally focused on agency and structure. This is the time in his life when he focused on the impact of the base (means and relations of production) on the superstructure, and how the superstructure, in turn, affects the base. His description of capitalism is that “it is not simply an economic system; it is also a political system, a mode of exercising power, and a process for exploiting workers” (Reader, 2013: 94). This exploitation of labor leads to the generation of commodities being sold for the benefit of the capitalist. Instead of the “use value” concerning the “intimate relation between human needs and the actual object” and time put into making it (Reader, 2013: 95), the “exchange value” or the monetary worth of the product in the marketplace is highly considered and cannot be compared. The labor that workers put into when making these commodities is supposed to be considered as a natural human task, but with the separation of use and exchange value, human labor
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Men were usually the one’s selling their labor, but women were the one’s not getting paid to raise the men who are the future generation of men to be exploited. Marx also didn’t take into account that there aren’t always going to be simply two classes (the owners and the workers). As the state grew and contemporary societies became more complex, these two classes split. Take for example an owner of a “mom and pop” store. They own this business and hire workers, but still have to compete with larger companies, sometimes even exploiting them for cheap goods. Marx believes that this capitalistic society will eventually evolve into one of a communistic state, but there are too many factors in play to assume such drastic change. It would almost need an entire homogenization of the entire population to allow that to

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