Example Of Teacher Immediacy Theory

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Problem Statement Bettering oneself through education is an admirable action. Unfortunately, due to the demands of life, economic fluctuations, proximity, cost, and dozens of other factors, many people shy away from earning a college education. Fortunately, because of its flexibility (Young, 2006), online education and blended learning has emerged and is quickly becoming an acceptable alternative to face-to-face classroom instruction (Oliver, 2011; Crawford-Ferre & Wiest, 2012). Online education also provides the flexibility needed to access college courses outside of face-to-face ideologies for traditionally underserved populations (Parry & Baird, 2012; Xu & Jaggers, 2014). Although the concept of distance education is not new, online courses …show more content…
The applications of immediacy to educational settings introduces the idea that a teacher, through the use of certain cues, can reduce the perceived distance between instructor and learners and thereby influence certain classroom outcomes, especially student learning (Allen, Witt, & Wheeless, 2006). Teacher immediacy represents a behavior that an instructor can be trained to exhibit and/or increase. Some examples of verbal immediacy behaviors include using personal examples, asking questions, using humor, addressing others by name, praising others, initiating discussion, and using inclusive pronouns (Kidd & Song, 2008). With the same line of thinking, there is also nonverbal immediacy. These behaviors typically include looking toward someone, leaning toward someone, touching someone in a non-threatening manner, sitting near someone, smiling, and speaking in an animated way (Planalp, 1993). The ability of a teacher to improve the outcomes of the educational environment by changing his or her communication behaviors represents a shift in perspective for persons studying classroom communication. As a matter of fact, research continues to demonstrate that increased teacher immediacy directly impacts cognitive and behavioral learning for the better (Adams & DeFleur, 2006; Manduca, McConnell, Koballa, & Mogk, …show more content…
Muted group theory highlights power functions in language, including talking and writing. This theory proposes students belonging to different social groups may limit speaking out because of perceived lack of power or authority without getting into of trouble. The dominant beliefs of the class tend to disregard the contributions of certain individuals (Kramarae, 2005). For this reason alone, it is vital for the faculty member to create a safe environment, or group culture, and be culturally sensitive to the representations in the class. Group culture is a set of values, and norms which dictate the behavior of members. It is based on a system of negative and positive consequences directed towards members, adjusting for the level of conformity to the cultural values and norms (Kaluża & Golik, 2008). Cultural norms span big and small, from country or region wide norms down to team/group norms within a virtual classroom. When an individual, from a culture that values harmony, is present in the class, there will be a tendency to slip into muted group theory. Putting it in another perspective, thanks to Kramarae (2005), women are muted when language practices are constructed by men to express experiences. Women do not necessarily share the experiences and therefore are not welcome to participate in the

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