Example Of Semantic Priming

Superior Essays
Semantic Priming
Semantic priming is a common priming paradigm in many monolingual studies (Bleasdale, 1987; Ferrand & New, 2003; Neely et al., 1989; Perea & Rosa, 2002a, 2002b; Hutchison, 2003; Lucas, 2000; Neely, 1991), but is less common in cross-language priming (Duyck, 2005; Kroll & Stewart, 1990; Schoonbaert et al., 2007; Chen & Ng, 1989; de Groot & Nas, 1991; Keatley et al. 1994; Schwanenflugel & Rey 1986; Basnight-Brown & Altarriba, 2007). Semantic priming studies offer an investigation of the relationships between two different lexical structures conveying the same meaning (e.g., gato and cat both have the same meaning but are two different forms of representation for this meaning). When a second language is acquired, meaning and form
…show more content…
As mentioned earlier, in lexical decision tasks, a semantic priming effect in a single language domain is found when a semantically related prime word produces faster and more accurate response times to targets than if the primes were unrelated to the target. For example, bread should prime butter faster than cat would prime butter (Meyer & Schvaneveldt, 1971). Few experiments examining cross-language semantic priming effects have been conducted, and of the few studies that do exist, there seems to be a discrepancy in the results. Further, some studies using semantic priming consider translations from L1 to L2 (e.g, perro and dog) to be “semantically related” (Midgley et al., 2009), but the relationship between words often found together in context is neglected. For example, bread and butter are generally associated together and indeed generate a strong priming effect (Meyer & Schvaneveldt, 1971) and therefore are associated items in the lexicon. There is little investigation into whether different forms in L1 and L2 representing the same meaning are also associated with these semantically associated items in both their L1 and L2 forms. For example it the word bread now changes its form to pan in Spanish but still conveys the same meaning, is pan still …show more content…
The forwards mask is usually a string of hashtags (#####) and the backwards mask can be either a string of random consonants (ZTKHWNPDQ) or is the target itself. When a prime is masked, it is unseen by participants and therefore is not consciously processed, but automatically processed. In masked priming paradigms, the prime itself, as well as the interval of time between the presentation of the prime and the presentation of the target item, referred to as stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA), is generally controlled. It is important to control an SOA, especially in semantic priming experiments, because it controls the amount of automatic processing of the presented prime Altarriba & Basnight-Brown, 2007). In bilingual experiments this paradigm is generally used with translation priming and lexical decision tasks (Basnight-Brown & Altarriba, 2007; Duyck, 2005; Finkbeiner, Forster, Nicol, & Nakamura, 2004; Gollan et al., 1997; Grainger & Frenck-Mestre, 1998; Jiang, 1999; Jiang & Forster, 2001; Kim & Davis, 2003; Voga & Grainger, 2007). Little research has been conducted using cross-language semantic priming with a masked prime. A benefit to using a masked semantic priming paradigm is that it allows investigation of purely automatic unconscious processing. Midgley et al. (2009) argue that the asymmetry priming effects in translation and semantic priming

Related Documents

  • Improved Essays

    The experimental data came from lexical and syntactic priming studies. They have been able to find data that separates function and positional level processing but phonological priming can sometimes lead to a late constituent placement which may compromise the original argument (Engelhardt et al., 2009). The article was able to show two sides of the idea and showed that, although, it may be possible for grammatical encoding to be used in control structures that have no lexical content, most syntactic structures are lexically anchored. To help explain grammar encoding, Tree-Adjoining Grammar (TAG), shows that the objects of the grammar are small trees, which include a word or lexical head. When discussing the second issue of grammatical encoding being automatic or resource-demanding, the article cites a finding from Ford (1982) – which measured spontaneous speech – presented that grammatical encoding may be resource-demanding.…

    • 1150 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    However, there is a great deal of controversy regarding remote association. Lashley commented that memorized items usually happen in the form of grouping and units, and Estes presented a theory that better captured the grouping phenomenon through hierarchical associations. In this theory, lists are broken into sections and subsections and smaller divisions from there; certain items activate the higher form of grouping which provides the context for the subgrouping and so on. If this is the case, then it allows for certain items to be primed and ready for recollection upon activation of the higher orders; this also explains where in subgroups certain items are exchanged in position, but do not cross over into other…

    • 800 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    This is a decent bread maker although the book of recipes included is not great.For bread machine recipes you can use your own or pick one up anywhere else. Once you have found a recipe that works, you will be enjoying fresh bread without all the mess with mixing bowls and oven pans in the kitchen. Read more… 5. Breadman TR520 Breadman TR520 This is another inexpensive bread machine that works well in baking delicious loaves of bread. It’s no fancy machine, of course – doesn’t have all the frills and trills, but it has all the necessary basics and the loaves always come out good.A few things about the design may seem awkward, like the pale-on-pale writing on the machine that is hard to read.…

    • 1829 Words
    • 8 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Sugar increases dough yield. It is complementary to the Pyler which states that addition of sugars results in increases yield per dough (Pyler, 1973). Stable, elastic and softer dough are produced apart from enhancing the crumb texture and moistness. Increasing levels of sugar affect the gas producing of baker’s yeast and thus rate of dough raised ability since extra food for the yeast are provided by sugars. The main non-starch polysaccharides components in whole wheat flour are the arabinoxylans and pentosans.…

    • 263 Words
    • 2 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Flaxseed Flour Flaxseed flour is a little different from flaxseed meal. The main difference is that the flour is ground even smaller than the meal is. The particles are so small that it will actually look like normal white flour. It can't be used as a one-to-one substitute, though, since it lacks gluten. You can replace some of the white flour with flaxseed flour, but be sure to increase the liquid in your recipe, as it requires more than regular wheat flour.…

    • 552 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Hershey's Pie

    • 1030 Words
    • 5 Pages

    Although the product started a while a go with Reese’s and Butterfingers but out lasted them and they have now brought back Reese’s, but for how long will it be back. Now of days the pie is only one of the many treats to have on burger kings list of tasty treats. You can now have cinnamon rolls, ice cram, shakes, and more. See they have to change it up e This new product by Burger King to make them more money. When it started it was great and know it still make…

    • 1030 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Hot food takes longer to eat, and all that liquid and fiber will help you feel full longer. Avoid super-sugary oatmeal. Stirring in cinnamon or nutmeg will give you a sweet taste with less sugar. 16.Crispbreads Whole-grain rye crackers, sometimes called crispbreads, offer a low-fat, fiber-packed alternative to traditional crackers. Research suggests people who replace refined grains with whole grains tend to have less belly fat.…

    • 1469 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Case Study Of Kelloggs

    • 1330 Words
    • 6 Pages

    Less Variety: Indians are used to variety. They have a varied menu for their breakfast. Asking them to have same corn flakes daily was sort of going against cultural. 3. Improper market research: Kellogg’s had performed amazingly in west and other parts of world.…

    • 1330 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Quantitatively fats and oils are the third most important ingredient used in cookie making. From a sensory quality viewpoint, fat is one of the principal ingredient that affect cookie texture. As observed in many earlier studies, reducing the fat content or replacing fat with other ingredients have a significant impact on the texture characteristics of biscuits (Campbell et al., 1994; Zoulias et al., 2002; Rodríguez-García et al., 2012). Generally, higher percentages of fat produce more tender cookies (Lai and Lin, 2006). It can have animal or vegetable origin and is often plasticized (Quaglia, 1984; Manley, 1998).…

    • 766 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    There are gluten free breads, doughnuts, muffins and many more foods that would not normally be considered gluten free. Becoming gluten free is easier now than it ever has been because of these options. They are a great way to help those who are sensitive to the gluten but want a cookies for…

    • 1430 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Improved Essays