Examining Biological Components And Sex Based Considerations Essay
Examining Biological Components and Sex-Based Considerations
Celiac disease (CD), an autoimmune condition involving the body’s averse response to gluten proteins in wheat, barley, and rye, was once primarily prevalent in Europe and Australasia and was rarely studied or diagnosed in the United States (Kang, Kang, Green, Gwee, & Ho, 2013). However, prevalence and incidence rates of CD, especially in the United States, have increased over the past several decades (Catassi et al., 2010). Celiac disease affects approximately 1:140 people in the United States population (about 1%), and risk of developing CD increases near ten-fold with a first or second degree relative with the disease to between 1:22-1:39 (Fasano et al., 2003; Rubio-Tapia, Ludvigsson, Brantner, Murray, & Everhart, 2012). Furthermore, a study found incidence rates of CD in a healthy United States population jumped five-fold (to 6.5 per 100,000) over a nine-year period, and reported consistent rising incidences with other population-based studies (Riddle, Murray, & Porter, 2012).
More specifically, age and sex-specific prevalence and incidence trends exist. All age groups can develop CD, but diagnosis most commonly occurs in middle age (40-60) (Green et al., 2001), on average 6-10 years after symptoms develop (National Institutes of Health, National Library of Medicine [NLM], 2016). Without routine screening, passive case finding contributes to most of these observed incidence rates.…