Observational Study Methods

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The study design of the Evans study was based upon the use of both direct interview and observational study methods. For the direct interview methods, social demographic data, medical variables, employment status, and subjective indicators were obtained via personal interview Interviewers were trained during a three-day training session to ensure uniform interview processes. Completed interviews were obtained from 90% of eligible patients (Evans et al, 1985). The responses to these interview questions was then compared to the existing indexes: the index of Physiological Effect, the Index of Overall Life Satisfaction, and the Index of Well Being (Evans et al, 1985).
Within the Evans study observational study methods were used to extract medical
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(Evans et al, 1985). Types of centers included large and small, urban and rural, academic, for profit, and non profit. Centers were chosen for their diversity in offering all four types of ESRD treatment options (Evans et al, 1985). Population stratification was determined by the patient’s current treatment approach at the time of the start of the study (Evans et al, 1985).
The study population from the Finklestein study was the already existing cohort from FREEDOM Study. The overall cohort was formed from 500 participants at 70 clinical sites (Finkelstein et al, 2012). Participants are enrolled in the cohort for 3 years with a minimum of an 18 month follow-up. Cohort members were required to be adult patients with ESRD who were considered suitable candidates for special prescription of daily hemodialysis via the NxStage System One device (Finkelstein et al, 2012). Participants were all also required to have Medicare as their primary insurance payer for administrative reasons. The control group to this study consisted of 5,000 patients receiving three times-weekly in-center HD cohort as derived from the US Renal Data System database (Finkelstein et al,
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The collection of statements by trained interviewers were collected as primary data sources. The outcome of these questions was then compared to existing scales and surveys of well being. The Index of Physiological Effect as well as the Index of Overall Life Satisfaction describe how patients feel about their present life and responses are averaged into a mean score (Evans et al, 1985). The Index of Well Being is derived from combing the two scores. The Index of Wellbeing ranges from 2.1 to 14.7 with a score of 2.1 indicating a low level of well being and 14.7 as a high level (Evans et al, 1985). Medical records and statements from personal care team members were formed into secondary data types. An index score was applied to account for comorbid physical conditions affecting the patient (Evans et al,

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