Plato, being a dualist, argued that life beyond death must exist. He said that the body was composite, and therefore capable of perishing, whereas the mind was simple and imperishable and the only immortal part of the body. He believed that the soul belonged to a higher state of existence, and the body was holding out soul’s captive; our body is seen in a negative light as it distracts us and our souls from seeking the forms through its trivial worldly desires such as sex and love of money. The best way Plato puts his point across is through the analogy of the charioteer, the charioteer is displayed as our reason in which controls and maintains the carriage, the two horses are spiritive and appetite. Appetite is often depicted as black
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So to Dawkins it would be completely illogical to suggest anything further concerning the soul; it is merely a concept of illusion caused by ignorance and irrational perception. Human consciousness is a ‘mysterious aspect of brain activity, which neither science of philosophy can understand’ this consciousness is what is mistaken as a soul. Therefore, for Dawkins there can be no disembodied existence as the body is one as a whole, nothing more.
Descartes developed the idea of empirical scepticism-doubting one’s own physical existence. His point was that he could doubt he had a body, but not doubt that he exists as his quote “cogito ergo sum” (I think therefore I am) meaning if Descartes was able to think he was still existing. This lead him to the assumption that simply because we can doubt something, it does not necessitate it’s non -existence. The pineal gland is a tiny organ in the centre of the brain that played an important role in Descartes' philosophy. He regarded it as the principal seat of the soul and the place in which all our thoughts are formed, Descartes was a dualist in which the mind and body where separate. This belief holds that the mind and the body are completely different and can exist without each other, therefore for Descartes it could very well be possible we can exist mind alone without a body. Ryle-argues against Descartes alleging that it was a mistake to treat the mind as an object made of an immaterial