Eternal Recurrence, By John Nietzsche: A Theory Of Justice

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Eternal Recurrence
• In Ecce Homo, Nietzsche asserts that the point of Thus Spake Zarathustra was not Superman, but the doctrine of "eternal recurrence." Eternal recurrence is the highest form of "yea-saying" that can be attained.
• The idea is that life, even in its smallest details, will recur innumerable times. This dismaying and oppressive notion is a further test of strength for the Übermensch. The world-approving man is the one who wishes to have life in all its misery and terribleness play over again and again, and who will cry "Encore" each time. This would be the ultimate liberation. "Oh, how should I not be ardent for eternity and for the marriage-ring of rings—the ring of the return?"
• But this is more than a test of strength
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The question is not whether they can talk or reason, but whether they can suffer. As such, that suffering should be taken into account in our treatment of them. Here we can see a moral ground for laws that aim at the "prevention of cruelty to animals" (and such cruelty was often witnessed in Bentham's day). John Rawls
• A Theory of Justice (1971) is not, strictly speaking, a work on ethics but rather a particular species of ethics, namely, justice.
• Nevertheless, the broad view and expansiveness of A Theory of Justice provides many moments of ethical reflection with issues ranging from intuitionism and utilitarianism to the ethics of Kant and Aristotle.
• As such, it contains the central issues of ethics from within its own interest.
• The theory of justice revolves around the adaptation of two fundamental principles of justice which would, in turn, guarantee a just and morally acceptable society: o First Principle -- Each person is to have an equal right to the most extensive total system of equal basic liberties compatible with a similar system of liberty for all. o Second Principle -- Social and economic inequalities are to be arranged so that they are

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