Essay On Replication Of DNA

Decent Essays
The Replication of Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) and Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)

DNA replication is when a cell divides and every new cell has a copy of the original cell’s genetic information. This allows it to synthesize the proteins to build cellular parts and metabolize. Replication of DNA happens during the interphase of a cell cycle. What makes the replication possible is the double-stranded structure of the DNA. During the phase of copying, hydrogen bonds between compatible base pairs in each DNA molecule break. Then the double helix disentangles and pulls apart, revealing the nitrogenous bases. After, DNA polymerase brings new nucleotides, and they form compatible pairs with the exposed bases. The other enzymes unify the
…show more content…
Making proteins takes various steps and is an enzyme-catalyzed process. Cells are able to synthesize proteins because it is given a specific sequence of nucleotide bases in the DNA of genes and a distinct sequence of amino acid in a protein molecule. The building block sequence is called the genetic code. Expressed in a DNA molecule by a specific sequence of three nucleotides are the twenty types of amino acids in an organic protein. The sequences are G, G, T in one of the types of amino acid: G, C, A in a different one: and T, T, A in another one. The other functions of the remaining nucleotide sequences follow instructions for beginning or ending the synthesis of a protein …show more content…
RNA is how genetic information gets to the cytoplasm because it is replicated into its molecules that are able to exit the nucleus. RNA is also a lot shorter than DNA and is single-stranded. The process of synthesizing RNA is called transcription. Messenger RNA is what carries a gene’s message out of the nucleus and other types help build proteins. RNA is different from DNA in many ways. For one, RNA is single-stranded and the nucleotides have sugar ribose instead of deoxyribose. Also while adenine, cytosine and guanine nucleotides are both in DNA and RNA, thymine is only in DNA. Instead of thymine, RNA molecules have uracil nucleotides. The enzyme RNA polymerase synthesis mRNA following the rules of compatible base pairing. For instance, DNA sequence A, T, G, C, G indicates the complementary mRNA bases U, A, C, G, C. Fixed DNA sequences outside genes signal the two strands of DNA that holds the information to build protein. RNA polymerase does the same by acknowledging sequences in the DNA that point to where the gene begins and stops. When the RNA polymerase gets to the end of the gene, newly formed mRNA is released and the process of transcription is

Related Documents

  • Decent Essays

    Next, short strands of RNA, called the RNA primers, are synthesized by an enzyme called primase. This provides a 3’ OH group for enzyme called DNA polymerase to begin replication. Without the 3’ OH group DNA polymerase would not be able synthesis DNA. The DNA polymerase binds to a DNA strand starting at the origin of replication, and joins nucleotides together to create a new DNA strand. As the DNA is unwound, this creates a replication fork.…

    • 1415 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    Eukaryotic Synthesis

    • 1359 Words
    • 6 Pages

    The relationship between codons and amino acids is known as the genetic code where it defines how sequences of codons specify which amino acid will be added next. Ribosomes are large structures within the cytoplasm that house the translation process and catalyze some of its steps. These structures are made up of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and protein subunits that provide a space for tRNA to bind to an mRNA template. Each ribosome contains 3 binding sites known as the A,…

    • 1359 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    Dna Synthesis Essay

    • 795 Words
    • 4 Pages

    After the replication process of DNA the new strand of DNA would just wind up to create a double helix. Transcription is making RNA part of a gene sequence. This is when DNA is copied into RNA which would make it a messenger RNA (mRNA). The Mrna molecule is able to leave the nucleus and go to the cytoplasm where it sends messages for the synthesis of…

    • 795 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    Let’s understand functionality one by one: • DNA consists of encoded instructions which are necessary to maintain, assemble and reproduce. • Proteins play important role in movement, photosynthesis, vision etc. • RNA is used to make proteins from encoded instructions in DNA. From above, we can conclude that, DNA makes RNA and RNA makes proteins.…

    • 1548 Words
    • 7 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    Proteins are essential to maintaining cells by creating hormones and enzymes, and defending the cell. The arrangement of DNA and RNA bases dictates what protein is formed. When DNA is separated into a single strand, ribonucleotides attach to one of the strands and form messenger RNA (mRNA), through the process of transcription. When the gene is turned into a protein sequence by transfer RNA (tRNA), it is called…

    • 1175 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    Nucleus Research Paper

    • 1230 Words
    • 5 Pages

    Free ribosomes and bound ribosomes are interchangeable. The cell ca change the numbers depending on its metabolic needs. The ribosomes read and translate codes from mRNA. The mRNA is sent as a messenger by the nucleolus to give the ribosomes the template for protein synthesis. The ribosomes take the template and hook together amino acids to create a polypeptide chain, protein.…

    • 1230 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    Dna Synthesis

    • 1283 Words
    • 6 Pages

    At this stage, the main objective is unwinding the double-helical structure of the DNA as proposed by Watson and Crick in 1953 and then use both strands as a template to continue the replication process (Weaver, 2012). According to Lodish (2008), it begins with the enzyme helicases steadily unravelling the strands at the replication origins by breaking the hydrogen bonds between the nitrogen bases of the DNA and continue to form a replication fork as it separates the strands into two parental strands (Reece, Reece & Campbell, 2011). During this time, Reece et. al (2011) explain that to prevent the recoiling of the strands, single strand binding protein firmly attached to the free-bound DNA nucleotides, hence inhibiting the formation of hydrogen bonds between the nitrogen bases of the DNA. Subsequently, since the action of unravelling and untwisting the helixes create supercoiling, a torsional pressure along the replication fork, topoisomerase is fully utilized to subdue the supercoiling (Lodish, 2008).…

    • 1283 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    The article had a lot to do with DNA and genes and how looping and folding of other.DNA allows cells to function correctly. Cells are basically a huge map for proteins and different things. In the Article shows how there were a lot of experiment taking place into the origami of DNA.Another Experiment that took place in the article was the HI-C method they found that there was 4.9 billion points in the genome in one segment. Looping were combine with histone that have been turn on by genes. At the same time the loops contained tiny parts where a protein is called CTCF.Researcher found large parts of gene looped together.…

    • 802 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    Transposition shows little sequence selectivity unlike the homologous recombination for insertion but require specific enzymes to move the different locations within genome. Also, transposition (class I) is widely resulting in duplication of original DNA sequences. There are considerable diversity among transposition elements and mainly classified into two groups according to their movement mechanisms. Class I is retro-transposons which use a RNA intermediate in transposition mechanism and Class II is DNA transposons remaining as DNA throughout transposition [4]. Retro transposons first transcribe themselves in RNA and then RNA is copied to DNA again by reverse transcriptase which is generally encoded by mobile elements.…

    • 1692 Words
    • 7 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    By separating the strands a single one of them is then able to be replicated. When the strands are separated it creates a Y shape which is called a replication fork. A short primer from RNA is used as a starting point on one of the strands to replicate the DNA. A DNA polymerase enzyme, used to assemble nucleotides, binds its self to the leading strand adding new nucleotide bases to the strand. When the base are matched up the enzyme exonuclease removes the primers and the gaps are filled with more nucleotides.…

    • 1003 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Decent Essays

Related Topics