Essay 3 - Nothing New Under the Sun

950 Words Apr 25th, 2016 4 Pages
In this paper the author will discuss the effects of different substances of abuse on the user’s body, depending on the method of administration and different pharmacological principles that are in effect. (Doweiko, 2015).
Effects of Drugs of Abuse
All chemicals or pharmaceutical agents have a biological impact on the body. They all change “the biological function of target cells through chemical actions” (Doweiko, 2015, p. 16). In cases of drugs of abuse the target is most often the central nervous system. There is always a primary effect or the desired effect and then there is also the side effects and usually undesired effect. Some side effects are minor while others can be fatal (Doweiko, 2015)
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Schedule “I” are highly habit forming, unsafe for general use and serve no medical purpose. Schedule “II”, “III”, “IV” and “V” range from highly addictive and approved for medical purposes to drugs that have low potential for abuse (U.S. Department of Justice, n.d.).
Routes of Absorption
Absorption into the body is what is necessary for the substance to have the desired effect, with the exception of topical agents (Doweiko, 2015). Absorption is influenced directly by the method of administration. Nicotine is delivered to the user by chewing, smoking, or inhaling a tobacco product and reaches the brain within 8 seconds. The user will only absorb 1 – 2 mg. of the 10 mg present in a cigarette. If the user were to have one single drop of pure nicotine, it would be fatal (Clinton & Scalise, 2013).
Two different methods of administration for drugs of abuse are enteral (through the gastrointestinal tract) and parenteral (injection or inhalation directly into the body). In any method the compound must enter the body in adequate strength and must reach the site of action in the necessary concentration to achieve the desired effect. This process is referred to as the bioavailability of a compound (Doweiko, 2015). For substances of abuse the site of action is the CNS.
The process of absorption begins when the compound enters the body, then moves through various cell boundaries, into the circulatory system, and ultimately

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