Enzyme Lab

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Background Research
Enzymes are proteins that act as biological catalysts. A catalyst can be defined as a substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction without itself undergoing any permanent chemical change. Enzymes are essential due to the fact that virtually every metabolic reaction which takes place within a living organism is catalyzed by an enzyme. This is because organisms catalyze the chemical reactions that would otherwise not be able to progress under typical physiological conditions, such as because they might require elevated temperatures or dissimilar pHs to proceed without a catalyst. Enzymes work by reducing the activation energy required for a chemical reaction to proceed.
The structure of enzymes is essential for their function. They are globular proteins, characteristic for being coiled into precise three-dimensional shape. Enzymes have hydrophilic R groups on the outside, which ensures that they are soluble. Furthermore, these molecules contain an active site.
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This is known as the enzyme’s substrate, and the active site on each enzyme is specific to only one type of substrate. There are two models representing how enzymes work. The first one, and oldest one, is known as the lock and key hypothesis. In this model, the enzyme’s active site is a perfect fit to a substrate. The substrate is the key and the enzyme is the lock. Temporary bonds are formed which hold the substrate with the enzyme’s R groups, forming an enzyme-substrate. The second model is known as the induced fit hypothesis. This is a newer explanation, due to evidence found that the enzyme or substarte can change shape slightly to accommodate a good fit. Regardless, enzymes can either break apart substrates (catabolic reaction) or join them (anabolic reaction).An enzyme product complex is shortly made before the release of the products. In the end, the enzyme is

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