Environmental Effects Of Forest Fragmentation

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impact the surrounding ecosystems in a negative way. This can be referred to as forest fragmentation. Forest fragmentation negatively affects the forests connectivity and function. Fragmentation caused by mine reclamation is said to be “two-sided because both the effect that natural habitat has on the restored area, and the effect the restored area has on natural habitat.” (Craig et al. 2015) It is known “edge effects increase with increasing contrast between habitats forming the edge with differences in vegetation height and cover being the primary structural variables that influence edge response strength.” (Craig et al. 2015) When open pit mining takes place it causes a vast difference between the habitats in a relatively short distance, …show more content…
Other forms of environmental degradation bauxite mining causes are due to is residue. Bauxite residue or red mud has vast affects on the ecology. The most common problems red mud causes are “wind erosion and groundwater pollution.” (Xue et al. 2015) Currently “there are four major disposal routes, including marine and slurry disposal, dry stacking, and dry cake stacking.” (Xue et al. 2015) Marine disposal poses a large problem in that it causes grave damage to aquatic ecosystem that can be spread around the world. Slurry disposal also creates potential environmental damage in the form of alkaline impoundments. “The highly alkaline impoundments, however, cause environmental risks due to the large amounts of caustic liquor and low penetration resistance of the stored residues.” (Xue et al. 2015) The most popular disposal method is dry stalking. This is because “dry stacking minimizes both land use and the potential for leakage to groundwater.” (Xue et al. 2015) However, this system also has flaws as “it is difficult to achieve in areas of high rainfall and low …show more content…
2015) The final method is known as cake stalking. This is a process that attempt to create a dry solid for easy storage. “Water from the residues has been removed as much as possible to produce the dry cake.” (Xue et al. 2015) Issues with this system include potential airborne damages as “fine particulates from the cakes surface could be re-entrained to the atmosphere.” (Xue et al. 2015) There are also techniques that can be used before the red mud is stored to decrease the possibility of environmental damages. “Seawater neutralization can decrease the pH of bauxite residue to 8.0–9.5.” (Xue et al. 2015) This reduction is pH lowers the risk of further ecological damage red mud could cause. Seawater is not the only way to reduce the pH of the residue as “Carbon dioxide treatment may also reduce pH and

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