Environmental Effects Of Climate Change

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The history of climate change as a science can be traced back to the 1860s, when physicist John Tyndall conducted experiments to understand molecular physics, particularly the heat-absorbing abilities of atmospheric gases. Tyndall found that molecules absorb more heat than their individual atomic components, and that the naturally-occurring greenhouse gas nitric oxide absorbs approximately one thousand times more infrared energy than nitrogen or oxygen alone. The concept of climate change as a result of increasing greenhouse gases was first proposed by Svante Arrhenius in the late nineteenth century. Although Arrhenius was primarily a physicist like Tyndall, he also studied the effects of carbon dioxide on surface temperature. Using findings …show more content…
Habitats are destroyed and converted into farmland and community areas, invasive species have been introduced to many ecosystems, and hunting and harvesting has greatly depleted the number of animals and plants in certain regions. Although many factors come into play with biodiversity, models show that climate change, and the human activities that contribute to climate change, may be one of its biggest threats. Dantas-Torres’s research shows that climate change and biodiversity reduction have an effect on tick-borne diseases. The relationship is nonlinear and not uniform across all tick species, but research suggests that warmer temperatures; milder, shorter winters; and fewer nonhuman host species may increase the distribution range and activity of both ticks and their hosts. The article mentions that these findings support the dilution effect hypothesis, which posits that ecosystems with diversity and high density may inhibit disease spread due to parasites (Civitello et al. 2015). If species richness and biodiversity is high, then the likelihood that a pathogen or vector will come into contact with a nonhuman host before a human one is higher. A table with the findings of this study is shown on the next …show more content…
It is uncommon in industrialized countries, but communities in the tropical regions and undeveloped areas are plagued by cholera outbreaks due to the conducive environment for both pathogen and host. Cholera infections occur in three to five million people every year (WHO 2016). Copepods, zooplankton which act as a host for cholera bacteria, play a primary role in the tropical ecosystem and bloom in nutrient-rich waters. The risk of an outbreak can never be completely ruled out in these areas, and increasing temperatures and more frequent catastrophic events like earthquakes and hurricanes may allow for the disease’s spread to other climates. Many people who become infected are able to recover from the illness with rehydration treatments, but the disease is still a threat due to the fact that the bacterium is extremely capable of lateral gene transfer. This means that less infectious strains with toxin-coding genes may pass their code on to a more infectious strain (Ackerman 2015). With the possibility of new strains and a wider range of inhabitable areas for the cholera bacterium and its invertebrate host, cholera is a disease that could threaten many more regions than

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