One of the main misunderstandings in environmental crime is the lack of consistency in the definition and classification of environmental crime. The primary problem is differing perspectives as to what constitutes as environmental crime, embedded in moral, philosophical and legalistic interpretations of harm and in what circumstances does this harm becomes a crime (White, 2008). Many criminologists have put forth perspectives which explain the reasons why individuals and corporations engage in activities that cause environmental harms. These perspectives can be linked to the original environmental or green criminology perspectives. Pollution and dumping has become an increasingly costly problem for the environment. As a results,
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Of the 2080 kilograms of waste generated in Australia, 38 percent came from the construction and demolition sector. Growth in the amount of waste generated per person has been driven by a number of economic and demographic factors. Australia’s large growing economic sector is contributing immensely to the large quantities of waste. As a result, Australia has become heavily reliant on landfills for waste management. The volume of waste deposited into landfill increased greatly from 19 million tonnes in 2001 to 21.3 million tonnes in 2007 (ABS, 2010). The primary environmental concerns associated with landfills are emissions of
greenhouse gases and the possible long-term pollution of the environment through the waste disposed in these landfills that do not decompose. The increase in waste, the costs of legal dumping and the corporatisation of waste administration has lead to the increase of illegal waste disposal.
In addition, Australia is one of the highest users of new technology in the world. Thus, e-waste is one of the fastest growing types of waste. According to Hyper Consulting and Pricewaterhouse Coopers (2009), in 2007-08, 21.7 million new televisions and computer produces were sold in Australia. 16.8 million units were out of use by the end of that year and of these, 88 percent ended up in landfills. Large developed companies are exporting huge quantities of e-waste to developing nations that do not have