Enterococcus Faecalis Research Paper

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1.Introduction:
Background/Aim.
1.1 Nature of the microorganism:
Enterococcus faecalis was placed under group D streptococci because of similar lysis characters; Identified as Gram positive, non-motile, anaerobic fermentative, lactic acid bacteria; are commensal inhabitant of intestinal bacteria and opportunistic pathogens. They occur singly or in pairs or chains.
1.2 Economic importance:
Enterococcus faecalis is also used as a probiotic for production of Mediterranean cheese and meat products that is normally responsible for organoleptic nature of final product in fermentation reactions.
1.3 Habitat:
Enterococci are extremely hardy microbes such that they are able to inhabit at wide range of temperatures (10°and 45°C), pH values (4•6 and
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2005; Haas and Gilmore, 1999).
2.2 Gelatinase:
Gelatinase is a metalloproteinase with zinc as its cofactor for enzymatic action and encoded by non-plasmid potential virulent gelE gene and possesses hydrolytic activity (Lindenstrau et al., 2011).
Gelatinase also be produced by various cells of mammalian system such as epithelial cells, inflammatory cells, fibroblasts, osteoclasts, etc. and host gelatinase plays a vital role in the normal physiological processes such as regulation of formation and remodeling of tissues by extracellular matrix degrading functions.
Gelatinase has broad spectrum of the substrate which hydrolyses various substrates namely gelatin, fibrin, collagen, fibrinogen, casein, Hemoglobin, Insulin, some sex-pheromone related peptides and other bioactive peptides of the E.faecalis (Makinen et al., 1989).
Being gelatinase is a potential role in virulence of E.faecalis its levels were increased in oral rinses, saliva samples and crevicular fluid (Makela et al.,
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2.5 Ace:
A kind of adhesions and play crucial role in binding to extra cellular proteins, collagen and laminin (Sridhar et al., 2010).
The role of Ace is reported in experimental endocarditis and urinary tract infections (Singh K.V. et al., 2010).
2.6 ElrA:
They are reported in experimental peritonitis and ElrA gene positive strains have got the ability to infect the macrophages (Brinster .S. et al., 2007).
Clinical and environmental isolates have high quorum sensing capacity with ElrA gene (Monika and Eliza 2012).
2.7 Ebp:
They are responsible genes for forming the pili and affect in the formation of biofilm (Nallapreddy et al., 2006).
These genes products such as pili mediate the adherence to the host cells like platelets, fibrinogen and collagen proteins. (Nallapareddy et al., 2011).
Other Virulence Factors:
The below mentioned genes and their products are least concerned but play a vital role in the disease dependent response for the pathogenicity as reported in in vitro studies of the various E. faecalis infections in animal

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