Comparing Freud And Nietzsche's Super-Ego

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Humans have a natural instinct to pursue knowledge; it is knowledge that is believed to be essential for survival. It is while pursuing knowledge that humans have developed, built, and rebuilt the world. This drive for knowledge serves as a drive for man to pursue a better quality life. This, however, does not guarantee the enlightenment of humans despite their drive or capacity for knowledge. According to Kant, enlightenment occurs when humans can grow out of their self inflicted immaturity. For Kant, this immaturity does not stem from lack of understanding but from the convenience of being immature. In order for one to be enlightened, two conditions must be met; the independency from others and the ability to acquire freewill. For …show more content…
According to him, they both lack freewill, an essential condition of being enlightened. He discusses how the slaves and free souls, despite being in different spectrums, both still lack freewill. On the other hand, Freud theorizes that a human’s personality is divided into Id, Ego and Super-ego. Super-ego reflects the guilt humans feel that is inflicted by civilization. Through exploring the superego, Freud shows that humans cannot form their thinking independently without being affected by civilization. This means that enlightenment, assuming that one of the conditions for it to be achieved is independence, cannot naturally be achieved. Enlightenment is a condition that cannot be achieved because its requirements: freedom and independence are naturally impossible to be fulfilled.
This paper challenges the philosophical ideology of enlightenment through different perspectives. Exploring these perspectives allows the reader to form their ideas regarding the many holes that can be poked in the theory of enlightenment. The first argument is that slaves and free souls both lack freewill and independence and thus cannot be enlightened. The second argument is that according to men, women cannot be enlightened because they are not independent. The third argument is that Super-ego that stems from civilization produces dependent thinking, thus making man impossible to be

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