According to him, they both lack freewill, an essential condition of being enlightened. He discusses how the slaves and free souls, despite being in different spectrums, both still lack freewill. On the other hand, Freud theorizes that a human’s personality is divided into Id, Ego and Super-ego. Super-ego reflects the guilt humans feel that is inflicted by civilization. Through exploring the superego, Freud shows that humans cannot form their thinking independently without being affected by civilization. This means that enlightenment, assuming that one of the conditions for it to be achieved is independence, cannot naturally be achieved. Enlightenment is a condition that cannot be achieved because its requirements: freedom and independence are naturally impossible to be fulfilled.
This paper challenges the philosophical ideology of enlightenment through different perspectives. Exploring these perspectives allows the reader to form their ideas regarding the many holes that can be poked in the theory of enlightenment. The first argument is that slaves and free souls both lack freewill and independence and thus cannot be enlightened. The second argument is that according to men, women cannot be enlightened because they are not independent. The third argument is that Super-ego that stems from civilization produces dependent thinking, thus making man impossible to be