Encephalocele Research Paper

963 Words 4 Pages
Encephalocele, or also known as Cranium Bifidum is a rare type of birth defect of the neural tube that affects the brain. The neural tube is a narrow channel that folds and closes during the third and fourth weeks of pregnancy to form the brain and spinal cord. Encephalocele is a sac-like protrusion or projection of the brain and the membranes that cover it through an opening in the skull. Encephalocele happens when the neural tube does not close completely during pregnancy. The neural tube is a hollow, embryonic structure that gradually develops into the central nervous system, comprising of the brain and spinal cord. This in the end, creates a gap or hole through which cerebrospinal fluid, brain tissue, and the membrane covering the brain …show more content…
Diagnoses, however could be in difficult in individuals with small defects such as in the nasal or forehead region. In addition to the abnormalities, there are several growth and mental retardation issues that are commonly seen in the affected patients. Symptoms include too much cerebrospinal fluid in parts of the brain, a particularly head, seizures, vision problems, swallowing problems, delayed growth and development, and other growing problems. Usually doctors can diagnose Encephalocele when a baby is born when they can see a huge bulge in their head and in the divide of the skull or facial bones. But sometimes Encephalocele can be diagnosed even when the child is older. The Encephalocele sometimes can be so small, it can be missed and not diagnosed. These small Encephaloceles are usually found around the baby’s nose, sinuses, and forehead. Sometimes the Encephalocele can be found on a prenatal ultrasound, if found the doctors involved will perform a fetal MRI, which can give more details about the baby’s …show more content…
The baby’s treatment will be made to their needs. Often, babies with Encephalocele need to be evaluated and treated by experts from Craniofacial, Plastic surgery, Ophthalmology, and Endocrinology, along with Neurosurgery. Sometimes a shunt is needed to drain the cerebrospinal fluid from around the brain. Usually, Neurosurgeons will repair the Encephalocele within a few months after birth. It all depends on if there is skin covering the Encephalocele, if it is then The surgeon may want to wait a few more months to perform the surgery. If there is no skin covering the Encephalocele, then the surgery should be performed as soon as possible. The reason for that is because there is no skin to protect the Encephalocele, it’s just open and exposed. To treat an Encephalocele, the neurosurgeon cuts and removes a piece of the bone from the skull. Next, the neurosurgeon cuts the membrane that protects the brain. This part of the surgery is called a Craniotomy, which allows them to get to the brain. The neurosurgeon then replaces the brain tissue and any other membranes or fluids that come out of the hole in the skull. They remove the sac that surrounded it. They close the skull using the same piece of the bone they removed, if possible. If there is a large hole in the skull, the neurosurgeon may use an artificial plate to

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