# How Does Annealing Time Change

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Electronic materials is very useful in today 's world, they can be used almost in all field. There are a lot of electronic materials produced every day, like semiconductor, Piezoelectric and ferroelectric materials, magnetic material etc. This lab is more concentrate on the electronic resistivity with the changing of annealing time. And XRD can help people figure out the grain size of the sample, and find the rule of the electronic resistivity with the changing of annealing time.
Introduction
The experiment is to determine the resistant of the electronic materials with the annealing time change, and the microstructure of the materials. It is easy to understand how to use AFM and Four Probe by studying the experiment. The electrical resistivity
Put the sample under the probes and press the probes until they touch the surface of the sample. Set the initial current as 10mA, test the sample and read the result on the screen. Repeat the same procedure but increase 10mA after each test until the current reaches 100mA. Record all the result during the test.
Annealing of Cu thin films The purpose of annealing the sample is to increase the grain size of the sample. The annealing temperature is 300℃, 4 groups of samples will leave in the annealing chamber for 6, 12, 24 and 48 hours. And the annealing must be in Argon or Nitrogen gas atmosphere at 1 atm because the samples will be oxidized in air.
XRD
XRD is to determine the microstructure of the samples. The structure information can be determined by analyzing the peak of diffraction angle 2θ degree. X-ray diffractometers consist of three basic elements: an X-ray tube, a sample holder, and an X-ray detector. The different annealing time will cause different microstructure, and people can summarize the change rule of the annealing time vs. structure.

Result and Discussion
Thicknesses measurement data
Group 1: 12156.525 Å
Group 3: 15074.94
In order to ensure precision of experimental results. We have to put our samples in Argon gas.
Question 3: Yes, they do. The bulk Cu has lower electrical resistivity than Si/SiO2/Cu sample. Because they are all thin film, so the resistivity is mainly governed by the grain size of the film.
Question 4: Our data is totally different with other group, because our samples are non-annealing. And the thickness of our group is around 1.61um, group 3 is around 1.5um, and group 1 is about 1.22um. Also, the resistivity is different with other groups, the resistivity of our group is 0.15, but group 3 and 4 are much smaller than us.

Engineering problem: I would like to use electrodeposition, because this mothed is usually used to grow copper metal interconnect film. Also the products are high quality. And the grain size for Cu does not matter the electrodeposition, because if we use this way to produce the thin film, the copper is not solid, there is no grain in copper. And from that table, we found the lowest resistivity for electrodeposition is

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