Egyptian Mummification Essay

1386 Words 6 Pages
Located in northeastern Africa, Egypt is bordered by the Mediterranean on one side, a desert on another, and mountains on a third. This geography let the Egyptians live in relative peace around the River Nile. The Nile is over 4000 miles long and its annual floods fertilized the surrounding valley. The Egyptians gradually learned how to manage and store the water in canals and basins for irrigation, and they used measuring devices called a nilometers to measure the water levels. By implementing these water control techniques, the Egyptians turned the dry wasteland on either side of the river into land rich with livestock and farming. The word “Pharaoh” comes from the words “per” and “aa,” meaning Great House, and the Pharaoh had two crowns: …show more content…
Priests performed the process, starting by removing all organs and intestines, replacing them with spices and herbs, and sewing the body shut to be soaked and dried. Then the remains were embalmed, wrapped in linen strips, decorated with a funerary mask and jewels, and buried with personal artifacts. The coffin was placed in a sarcophagus, and the removed viscera in decorated jars. Egyptian hieroglyphics were first found on the Rosetta Stone by French scholar Pierre Xavier in 1822. Later, English scholar Thomas Young recognized that the hieroglyphs contained both alphabetic and pictographic symbols, and eventually Jean Francois Champollion decoded the names of Pharaohs, inscribed within a cartouche, and from there a system could be deciphered. The Stone states the relationships between the Pharaoh and gods and various policies. The Pre-Dynastic Period (6000 BCE - 3150 BCE) began when the end of a glacial period caused a high influx of people along the Nile, creating the Upper and Lower Nile regions. Mythology references the Upper (representing Seth) invading the Lower (representing Horace) in 4242 BCE. Horace, the Lower, won, but the territories agreed to live peacefully as separate, primitive entities, though conflict occasionally …show more content…
Valuable resources were imported, new public projects and art practices started, and the first known treatise on surgery written. Pharaoh Zoser built a gigantic funerary complex that was expanded after his death, Pharaoh Snefru built three large pyramids at Dahshur, and the following Pharaohs continued the trend, best seen in the pyramids of Giza. The pyramids erected during this time followed the concept of Ben Ben and were believed to give the Pharaohs Ra’s blessing in the afterlife. They were constructed by paid workers using logs, flint, and copper tools. The true pyramid design has smooth triangular sides and a square base, with varying degrees of

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