Effects Of Water Shortage

1067 Words 5 Pages
Water shortage is a growing problem, not only in poverty stricken and developing countries, but globally. It is said that within 15 years, over half of the population of the world will be living in high water stress areas. It is fast becoming a universal issue, and should be addressed immediately.
Glass (2010) suggests that “the population is increasing most rapidly in cities,” and so the availability of water is also decreasing. Population growth is commonly seen as a key factor that adds to the water crisis, the general idea being that the more people there are, the more water is needed. The number of humans is increasing most rapidly in areas where water is harder to attain. This idea is supported by Mazur (2012) analysed The World Bank’s
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Mazur (2012) focuses on developing countries and observes that these areas have “an average fertility rate of 4.8 children per woman,” which is nearly twice the global average and is expected to double by 2050. Another crucial element that encourages water scarcity is climate change. As droughts become more frequent, the water supply is set to decrease. This affects global agriculture greatly. The IPCC (2007) believe that increased temperatures and inconsistency in precipitation will lead to higher irrigation water demand, even if during the growing season, the overall precipitation remains the same. This is especially a problem in countries like India, where water for crops is being drawn from the earth. Parikh (2013) states that India has a declining groundwater supply. This is because of over-extraction by land farmers as groundwater is an open-access …show more content…
A common solution for agricultural purposes is irrigation systems. Lehr et al (2005) consider irrigation systems, such as: surges, drips, sprinklers and low energy precision applications, to be and very efficient way for producers to apply water uniformly. Systems such as these are used widely across developing countries to distribute water to crops without wasting or using excess resources. This method is not only effective, but is also practical in terms of cost. In order to tackle the groundwater issues in places such as India, Parikh (2013) encourages watershed development. This includes levelling land and building small check dams in streams that collect rainwater. The collected water revives groundwater and increases moisture levels in soil. Solutions like this are already in use around the world, due to how simple and effective they are. Dams can be built without industrial tools, so they are one of the less expensive options. Wikstrom (2015) believes that water purifiers are an efficient way of delivering sanitised water to less developed areas. Zinc oxide and titanium dioxide are used in water purifiers, which are exposed to ultraviolet radiation, hence cleansing the water and making it more suitable to drink. Although they are an energy efficient way of producing clean water, they can be expensive to establish across the globe. Wikstrom (2015) also suggests lifesaver

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