Effects Of The Oral Contraceptive Combination Pill On Fish, Frogs, And Rats

2451 Words Nov 23rd, 2016 10 Pages
17α-ethynylestradiol from Water Effluents Cause Reproductive Issues in Fish, Frogs, and Rats.

Introduction &Background:
There are millions of women using birth control in North America, which causes them to secrete 17α-Ethinylestradiol (EE2) in their urine (Ranney,1977). However, during wastewater treatments the EE2 is hydrolysed to form the parent steroid that isn’t completely removed from the treated water, levels of these hormones have been reported to range from 1-9 ng/L (Desbrow, 1998). Reading this, I was interested if this is something that applies to me, I use tap water in my home every day for drinking and cooking, so I sought out articles that have examined the effects of 17α-Ethinylestradiol consumption so that I may be able to draw conclusions about the potential risk that I face.
The oral contraceptive combination pill that has been on the market since the 1960s is made from two hormones: Ethynylestradiol, which is a synthetic form of estrogen that has nearly ten times the estrogenic potency of the natural hormone estrone; and a progestin, norethindrone, that while in the human body is converted into polar metabolites, which over ninety percent of those metabolites found in urine are of the 17-ethynyl group (Ranney, 1977). These two hormones work together in the body to prevent pregnancy in multiple ways. By taking the pill daily there is a constant level of these hormones maintained in the body, which prevent the body from releasing similar hormones that cause…

Related Documents