Effects Of State Formation In Zimbabwe
State Formation & Post-Colonial Challenges
16 November 2017
According to Lakhdar Brahimi, “a Failed State is the responsibility of the people who made that State fail, and those are generally the people of that Country.” This would be an over-simplistic way of looking at Zimbabwe and many other African Countries. The problem with this assertation is that we ignore the way in which Colonialism interrupted the historical State Formation process in Africa. We will never know if the outcome could have been different wasn’t it for Europe’s interference.
State formation in Africa differs widely from Europe and America. Everything in Africa contradicts the criteria for …show more content…
An Interventionist State was created and military rule was used to enforce this policy and exclude black people as an interest group. By 1965, after several attempts, to gain Independance from Britain, Rhodesia declared it’s own Independence. This lead to a period of International Sanctions, economic exclusion from the rest of the World and a Guerrilla uprising from the rural black population. Initially, self-reliance strengthened the State and growth rates increased considerably (International Trade Forum, 2016). To deal with the uprisings and threats from neighbouring countries, the State became more authoritarian and military spending increased significantly. This, coupled with Sanctions affected the Economy and the tax base started to reduce significantly, resulting in less money to maintain the authority and military hold of the state. In 1980, the ZANU-PF won the first democratic elections and took over the State. Initially, the Government retained all-white staff, but simply expanded the State organs to include new black staff. This resulted in an overall expansion of the size of Government and indirectly strengthened the State. Social Services and Agricultural subsidies boosted the support from the Rural population and the State’s reconciliatory attitude to the White Minority helped to boost agricultural production and maintain tax collection from …show more content…
There will need to be evident changes in order for Zimbabwe to emerge from their current position.
Africa's economic transformation hinges on unlocking potential of cities, report says. (2016). International Trade Forum, (2), 7.
Biedzynski, J. C. (1996). Citizen and Subject: Contemporary Africa and The Legacy of Late Colonialism. Journal Of Third World Studies, 13(1), 282-285.
Brett, E. A. (2005). From Corporatism to Liberalization in Zimbabwe: Economic Policy Regimes and Political Crisis, 1980-97. International Political Science Review, 26(1), 91-106. doi:10.1177/0192512105047898
Fontein, J. (2005). RECLAIMING ZIMBABWE'S UNFINISHED BUSINESS. Africa (Edinburgh University Press), 75(4), 599-605.
Jackson, R. H. (1987). Quasi-states, dual regimes, and neoclassical theory: International jurisprudence and the Third World. International Organization, 41(4),