Effects Of Self Esteem On Language Learning

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2.1.1.3 Self-esteem

Self-esteem is one of the key factors affecting language learning in general and motivation in particular. Feelings of inadequacy, a sense of unworthiness, increased anxiety, depression, mental disorders and other negative phenomena have been closely related to lack of self-esteem (Coopersmith, 1967). Self-esteem is defined as a personal judgment of worthiness that is expressed in the attitudes that individuals hold toward themselves (Coopersmith, 1967). In other words, it indicates the extent to which individuals believe themselves to be capable, significant, successful and worthy. Brown (2007) emphasizes that no successful cognitive or affective activity can be carried out without some degree of self-esteem, self-confidence,
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It refers to the knowledge that students have prior to engaging in learning (Chen and Wu, 2012). According to Biemans and Simons (1996) background knowledge is“all knowledge learners have when entering a learning environment that is potentially relevant for acquiring new knowledge” (p.6). In other words, prior knowledge includes content knowledge, academic language and vocabulary necessary for comprehending content information. A review of the existing literature indicates that prior knowledge is one of the most powerful determinants of students’ success or failure in school (e.g. Dochy et al., 1996; Tobias, 1994). It helps students make stronger connections and find deeper relevance in learning, and this boosts student engagement (Jensen and Nickelsen, 2008), whereas a lack of prior knowledge prevents students from acquiring new knowledge and causes an excess cognitive load on their working memory (Dochy et al., 2002). Luu (2011) also stresses that students with good past learning knowledge can study better at present than students with lost background …show more content…
101). The more success students achieve, the more likely they are to stay motivated to learn. Experience of success provides students with more power to pursue a new goal (Ebata, 2008).Ur (1996) states that learners who have succeeded in past tasks will be more willing to engage with the next one, more confident in their chances of succeeding, and more likely to preserve in their efforts. Luu (2012) also emphasizes the importance of students’ previous learning experiences on their present learning outcomes. Students who were successful in their past learning may be predisposed to learning success in the present. In contrast, if unsuccessful, they will expect failure in their present learning. Success in language learning refers to right answers; the amount of language produced or understood; the investment of effort and care, and the degree of progress since a previous performance (Ur, 1996). The message of students’ success can be conveyed by the teacher’s nod, tick, or explicit praise or approval; or by its expression in quantitative grades. However, Ur (1996) notices that these explicit markers of success should not be over-used because learners may become dependent on them: they may lose confidence in their ability to recognize success on their

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