Overt Forms Of Racial Discrimination

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A countless number of different ethnic groups exist in the world and the interaction between them can often lead to experiences of racial discrimination. There is however a difference between prejudice and systemic racism and within that there exist different types. As a nation that multiple racial and ethnic groups call home, New Zealand is not exempt from accusations of racism at all levels, though the extent of which is subject to debate. Racial discrimination is treating someone differently based on their perceived racial or ethnic identity and no single group is immune to this treatment. The term includes prejudice that is both ‘upward’ and ‘downward’, meaning that it is felt against all groups regardless of their standing in society. …show more content…
These two styles intersect with different levels and types of discrimination to make the various forms of racism. The most noticeable is personal racism which is perpetuated by the individual against members of a minority group and is based on stereotypes and assumptions of an individuals’ character, abilities or desires. The overt forms of personal racism such as insults, offensive letters or graffiti, and physical or verbal abuse, are what one typically thinks of as racism and are conscious acts, therefore much easier to distance oneself from and declare racism an ‘individual problem’ (University of British Columbia, 2010). Covert forms of personal racism are harder to detect and are sometimes described as ‘casual racism’ as they are perpetuated day-to-day, even by those who would not consider their actions racist. Examples of this are the exclusion of individuals of a racial group, negative comments and jokes, as well as ignoring or dismissing those that speak up about their experiences of racism (Czerniawsk, 2015). This type of racism is dangerous as it leads people to ignore the systemic basis of an individual’s racist views and is so embedded that it can cause members of minority groups to experience internalized racism which is believing the negative stereotypes of their own race or …show more content…
As well as reducing the likelihood of discrimination, an individuals’ level of assimilation could qualify them for ‘legal ownership’ of land under the Land Agents Act (1912) if their character was verified by “not less than five reputable persons” (p. 180). This required Māori to leave much of their culture behind and appeal to the sensibilities of those considered ‘reputable persons’ in the eyes of European law. This exhibits cultural racism, which values a certain group’s culture over another. Advertising and media also perpetuate cultural racism by focusing on the stories of majority groups and holding the dominant group’s standard of beauty as superior (University of British Columbia, 2010). The latter especially reinforces what is desirable or what fits within social norms by valuing a certain look above others, this includes skin colour, physical features and style of dress, all of which are used to distinguish between racial groups. Other examples include restricting the observation of cultural traditions, banning cultural dress in professional environments and omitting the opinions and experiences of minority groups. These also illustrate institutional racism and show how racist acts can be

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