Economic Importance Of Mangroves

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1.1 Background and problem statement
Mangroves are tropical and sub-tropical woody trees that grow naturally in brackish waters within the intertidal zone. Mangrove ecosystems are highly productive and rich in biodiversity and offer a variety of goods and services, both economic and ecological. The estimated total area of mangroves is just above 150,000 km2, divided by 123 countries worldwide (Spalding et al., 2010). In tropical regions, these ecosystems constitute about 0.7 % of the total tropical forests (Jennerjahn & Ittekkot 2002). Even with their limited extent, mangrove are indispensable to tropical coastal regions as they form the economic foundation for many of these regions (Field et al. 1998).
Despite the many important services
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Some of these studies include: distribution and economic importance of Kenyan mangrove forests (Kokwaro, J. O. 1985), structure and regeneration patterns of Mida Creek and Tudor creek mangroves (Kairo et al. 2002; Mohamed et al. 2009), survival of replanted mangroves and colonization of non-planted ones at Gazi Bay (Bosire et al. 2003), mangrove users valuation of planted mangroves and the users’ perceptions on mangrove plantation initiatives (Rönnbäck et al. 2007), mapping of mangroves and land cover change along the Kenyan coastline (Kirui et al. 2013), economic valuation of mangrove forests of Kenyan south coast (Huxham et al. 2015), and wide-ranging insect infestation of the pioneer mangrove Sonneratia alba along the Kenyan coast (Jenoh et al. 2016). However, most of these studies have only addressed either social or ecological system separately. Those attempting to link the social and ecological systems are scarce and, often, inconclusive. Besides, social and ecological systems are linked and delineation between them is artificial and arbitrary (Berkes & Folke 1998). Management of natural resource that takes into account social and ecological influences at multiple scales, incorporates continuous change, and acknowledges a level of uncertainty have the potential to increase system’s resilience to disturbance and its capacity to adapt to

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