Echocardiogram Papers

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Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most common form of feline cardiomyopathies. This disease affects the cardiovascular system. The heart has many important anatomical features. One of these being the ventricle of the heart. The ventricle of the heart is the main heart muscle that pumps blood. When HCM occurs the left ventricle within the heart thickens. When the thickening of the ventricle occurs there will be a decreased ventricular chamber volume, and abnormal ventricular relaxation. This deals with the diastolic aspect of the heart. Since the amount of blood pumped and ejected by the heart per minute will be decreased, the heart rate will increase. The heart is trying to compensate for this thickening wall by maintaining cardio output …show more content…
An echocardiogram is the main diagnostic tool used for HCM diagnoses. An echocardiogram is an ultrasound of the heart. The ultrasound machine, and probe will be used. It is important to clip the hair about two to four centimeters over the apex beat, which will give us a window into the heart. Ultrasound gel will need to be applied to the skin, and will need to soak into the skin for five minutes. The patient will be laying in right lateral recumbency on a soft surface. The ultrasound machine will be turned on, and the patient’s details will be entered in. Make sure the machine is preset to the cardiac setting, if available. Once the gel is absorbed the probe will be held in a pencil grab technique. Place the footprint of the probe with ultrasound gel on it over the apex beat of the heart. Adjust the depth, gain, time gain compensation., and frequency accordingly to the image on the screen. A four chamber view will be needed. This view will show views of the right ventricle and atrium, and the left ventricle and atrium. Once the probe is placed it will be fanned and slid cranially, and caudally. It will also be rotated ninety degrees clockwise, and counterclockwise. These movements will help capture each chamber of the heart, this machine can also measure the ventricles to compare the sizes of the two structures. Upon the ultrasound you will visualize ventricular hypertrophy, absence of …show more content…
This radiograph will give a full view of the cardiac silhouette, and the lungs. The patient will be placed in right lateral recumbency onto the x-ray machine. The machine’s mAs and kVp will need to be set according to the chart that is set up for that specific machine. When in lateral recumbency the front limbs need to be extended cranially, and the hind limbs caudally. The sternum needs to be elevated with a foam wedge pad. For collimation the field of view should include the entire thoracic cavity. The cranially aspect should be the manubrium sterni, and the caudal aspect should be the first lumbar vertebrae. The exposure will be taken on peak inspiration. After the film is developed either electronically or manually the radiograph will show diagnostic evidence of HCM. The radiograph will show an increased vertebral heart score, potential pulmonary edema diffuse pattern, and the cardiac silhouette will be enlarged. The radiograph will also show pulmonary effusion within the lungs if

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