Eating, Substance Abuse, Sex/Gender/Sexual, Impulse-Control, and Personality Disorder
Normal behavior is accepted world-wide, but when people show abnormal behavior, it is accepted by the few that may understand why this is their behavior. Abnormal behavior that disrupts an individual’s life on a daily basis can be caused by several disorders. These disorders can very complex at times and some are more devastating to the mind and body than others. In this paper, the biological, emotional, cognitive, and behavioral components of eating, substance abuse, sex/gender/sexual, impulse-control, and personality disorders will be analyzed.
Eating Disorder Genetics and abnormalities in hormones, neurotransmitters, and brain
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This then may reinforce eating disorder behavior (Hansell & Damour, 2008). Low levels of neurotransmitters, such as serotonin may be associated with anorexia and bulimia. Serotonin is associated with appetite regulation, mood and anxiety disorders, impulse control problems, and obsessional thinking. It is still undetermined though if low levels of serotonin result in eating disorders or cause them. There have been numerous studies done, all having different results. Some have found that serotonin levels go back to normal found once the eating disorder ends; other studies have found that serotonin abnormalities continue after recovery. So whether or not serotonin causes or is a result of eating disorders is still trying to be figured out (Hansell & Damour, 2008). It has been found that abnormalities in brain structures can either cause eating disorders or be a result from them. Some studies show that the abnormalities disappear when their weight is back to normal, but then there is evidence of the abnormalities continuing after recovery and the total volume of gray and white matter is less in adolescents who suffered from malnourishment (Hansell & Damour, 2008).
Substance Abuse When taking drugs, the dopamine transmitter system is affected and they activate the “reward pathway” which releases dopamine into the brain. Once stimulated, surges of pleasure run through the brain and body which reinforce the use of substances. The