However, if this is the case, how can an interaction between these two radically distinctive entities occur?
Mental causation, as an argument against dualism, is defined as "the bringing about of effects, physical or mental, by minds or goings-on in minds" (1). It is modelled around the question how mental causes, for example, the fear of spiders can result in physical reactions involving sweating, a change in blood pressure or even the loss of consciousness. Therefore, it provides an argument in favour of physicalism since it seems to contradict the strong separation of mind and body suggested by dualism.
But does it really disprove the fundamental difference between the mental and physical and is an insurmountable problem for dualism?
First of all the claim, that mental states influence physical behaviour does not yet provide a conflicting counter argument to dualism. Furthermore, Descartes suggested in his letters to Princess Elizabeth in May 1643, mental causation must not be understood like physical forces causing objects to move, but is a far more "primitive" matter. This may be explained in Descartes ' Second Mediation, …show more content…
It needs a substance with different properties to the physical body which is the mind. Beethoven 's case is proof that while the body as a physical entity may be able to reach and receive stimuli it is still unable to think or feel, but in contradiction, the mind (or soul as Descartes refers to it), while being a non-extended substance with no shape or form and does not consist of any physical matter, is able to evaluate these stimuli, think and