Risk Factors and Research
Valencia Community College, East Campus
This paper was written for Human Biology, Section 24630, taught by Professor Ed Schultz.
In 1866, John Langdon Down; an English physician, recorded and published an accurate description of a person with Down syndrome. He stated that, the facial features of those who have Down syndrome were similar to those of the Mongolians and he called them mongoloids. Down syndrome, also known as Trisomy 21, is a condition where a person has been born with an extra copy of chromosome 21. Dr. Jerome Lejeune; a French physician discovered that being "mongoloid" was a result from a chromosomal abnormality, which meant the …show more content…
Trisomy 21 happens to be the most common accounting for 95% of the cases. Mosaicism accounts for only 1% of cases. In this form of Down syndrome the trisomy 21 takes place in one of the initial cell divisions after fertilization. Translocation accounts for 4% of all cases of Down syndrome. In translocation, part of the chromosome 21 breaks off during cell division and attaches to another chromosome. Translocation is also a type of Down syndrome that can be inherited by the parents. The chart below shows the cell division of Trisomy 21. Here you can clearly see that chromosome 21 has an extra …show more content…
Because the condition is basically a mess up with the cell division there is no possible way to cure it, the cells have already divided into their chromosomes. According to Mayo Clinic, there is no way to prevent having a child with Down syndrome. If the mother is already at a high risk of having a child with Down syndrome, or already has a child with Down syndrome than it is recommended to see a genetic consultant. The genetic consultant will help explain the chances the mother has in having a baby with Trisomy 21. Though the diagnosis of the syndrome usually takes place after the baby is born, those families who have had an idea that their baby may develop the condition may get a diagnosis during the pregnancy. This way they can plan ahead of time for the special needs and accommodations they will need to make for the baby. Since each person is different, there is no specific medication that is given to each person with Down syndrome. Medication is given based on what each individual needs. For instance one may have cancer and need to take medicine to help them from getting sick, where the other may have trouble speaking and they are prescribed to see a speech therapist to help them