The domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris) is a subspecies of the gray wolf (Canis lupus), a member of the Canidae family of the mammalian order Carnivora. The term "domestic dog" is generally used for both domesticated and feral varieties. The dog has been the first animal to be domesticated and has been the most widely kept working, hunting, and pet animal in human history. The word "dog" may also mean the male of a canine species, as opposed to the word "bitch" for the female of the species.
MtDNA evidence shows an evolutionary split between the modern dog's lineage and the modern wolf's lineage around 100,000 years ago but, as of 2013, the oldest fossil specimens genetically linked to the modern dog's lineage date to
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Contents [hide] * 1 Etymology and related terminology * 2 Taxonomy * 3 History and evolution * 3.1 DNA studies * 4 Roles with humans * 4.1 Early roles * 4.2 As pets * 4.3 Work * 4.4 Sports and shows * 4.5 As a food source * 4.6 Health risks to humans * 4.7 Health benefits for humans * 4.8 Shelters * 5 Biology * 5.1 Senses * 5.1.1 Vision * 5.1.2 Hearing * 5.1.3 Smell * 5.2 Physical characteristics * 5.2.1 Coat * 5.2.2 Tail * 5.3 Types and breeds * 5.4 Health * 5.4.1 Mortality * 5.4.2 Predation * 5.5 Diet * 5.5.1 Foods toxic to dogs * 5.6 Reproduction * 5.7 Neutering * 5.8 Communication * 6 Intelligence and behavior * 6.1 Intelligence * 6.2 Behavior * 6.3 Dog growl * 7 Differences from wolves * 7.1 Physical characteristics * 7.2 Behavioral differences * 7.3 Trainability * 8 Mythology * 9 Gallery of dogs in art * 10 See also * 11 References * 12 Bibliography * 13 External links |
Etymology and related terminology
"Dog" is the common use term that refers to members of the subspecies Canis lupus