Nuclear Reactors

1. Introduction

Most nuclear power plants/reactors work in quite a similar way. The power/energy released by the reaction of continuous fission of the atoms (this process is call nuclear fission) from the fuel (this is achieved by using radioactive elements) is use create heat for liquid to turn into steam. This steam is then used to drive the turbines in the power plant, which produce electricity. (World Nuclear Association, 2015) The nuclear power plants on average now have about 33% efficiency to using heat/steam in the power plant and providing 10.9% of the world’s electricity in 2012.

2. History of Nuclear power generation
2.1 Introduction Nuclear power generation

The first working nuclear reactor to generate electricity is call the
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3. Different Methodologies of Nuclear Reactors
There are many different types of nuclear reactors used around the world. The following chapter will explain the working of few of these nuclear reactors.
3.1 Pressurised Water Reactor (PWR)

PWR is the most commonly use type of nuclear reactor, with over 230 of PWR used for electrical generation and several hundred more used for nuclear power naval ships/submarines. PWR reactors use water as both coolant and moderator. PWR works by having a primary cooling circuit using very high pressured water to flow through the core of the reactor, and another circuit that uses heated steam that had been generated to drive the turbine. (World Nuclear Association, 2015) Figure 4 - atypical boild water reactor (World Nuclear Association, 2015)
3.2 Boiling water Reactor (BWR)

BWR is a similar design to PWR, except there is only one circuit in the system along in low pressured. BWR is design to work with less steam than PWR, hence a less moderating effect and more efficiency. (World Nuclear Association,
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The turbine for this design needs to be shield for radiation, since water around the core is always contaminated. The cost for maintain is cheaper for BWR, because of the simple design. (World Nuclear Association, 2015) 3.3 Generation IV Nuclear Reactors (GIF)

GIF are six developing nuclear reactor technologies due to finish in between 2020 to 2030. One could say they are the future of nuclear power. Four of these technologies are fast neutron reactors, able to operate at higher temperatures than today’s reactors designed for hydrogen production.

All six designs are work of multiply countries with nuclear power together for better sustainability, economics, safety, reliability and proliferation resistance. Below reactor is call advance gases cool reactors, one of the concept of GIF call Gas-cooled fast reactor is built on top of that. (Generation IV Nuclear Reactors, 2014) Figure 6 - Advance Gas-cooled Reactor (World Nuclear Association, 2015)
The Gas-cooled fast reactor works like a advance Gas-cooled reactor, except the temperature for the fuel can goes up to 850°C. (Generation IV Nuclear Reactors, 2014)

The following table shows designs that had been look at and in working process in the GIF

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