Difference Between Sensation And Perception

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R.H. Ettinger describes and details the topic of sensation and perception in chapter four of Psychology: The Science of Behavior. Sensation and perception go hand in hand together to form the basis of every organism 's behavior. Sensation is the direct and immediate experience that affects a sense organ whereas perception is the organization and interpretation of each sensation. The five major senses: vision, audition, gustation, olfaction, and skin senses all go through the process of transduction in which energy (light, chemical, or mechanical) is transformed by a sensory organ into electrochemical energy. This entire process is caused by neurons firing. Each sense organ respond to different signals and differentiate depending on which part …show more content…
The visual system is comprised of three parts: the eyes, the neural circuit, and the visual center. The eyes are responsible for absorbing and replying to light energy whereas the neural circuit carries signals from the eyes into the brain and the visual centers deciphers these signals. This entire process occurs because of light energy. Light energy is a form of electromagnetic radiation along with cosmic rays, ultraviolet rays, infrared rays, microwaves, and radio waves. There are a few major properties of light such as brightness, hue, and saturation. Brightness is the intensity of light; hue is the color one perceives; and saturation controls how colorful light appears. (Ettinger 2013 p. 131). The next topic discussed is the structure and function of the eye. The components of the eye which allow it to focus are the cornea, lens, iris, and pupil. The retina is responsible for the image-recording part. These process depend on the order in which light enters the eye and the quantity of rods and cones which are located in the retina. Rods and cones also give eyes the ability to adapt to dim or bright light. The journey of light first travels through the sections of the eyes, then goes to the thalmus, which is a relay center for information, and lastly travels to the visual cortex where information is then perceived. Another …show more content…
The organization and interpretation of sensations is described as perception. The structuring of basic sensations, such as lines and dots, into objects is known as perceptual organization. In perception, the figure is the section of an image one focuses their attention on whereas the ground is the background or unfocused section. The organization of patterns based on similarity, proximity, and good continuation is perceptual grouping. The last perceptual organization technique is closure, or the idea that one tends to perceive incomplete figures as complete. Selective attention is when one focuses on one stimuli. Inattentional blindness is when one ignores other stimuli due to selective attention. Next, spatial perception is the process of viewing objects from various distances and perspectives. Perceptual cues allow people to judge these principles. Binocular cues depend on both eyes working together whereas monocular cues can be used with one eye. The perception of depth is a monocular cue. Perceptual constancy is the idea that the size, color, and brightness of an object are consistent. All of these perceptual ideas are used to create different visual illusions. A perceptual set is the tendency to see, hear, smell, feel, or taste what is expected due to preconceived notions (Ettinger 2013 p. 177). In conclusion, sensations and perceptions are significant factors in how every human survives and understand

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