Diclofenac Sodium Case Study

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Table 1 showed that oral administration of Diclofenac sodium at 150mg/kg.b.w. resulted in a significant increase in renal tumor necroses factor -α (TNF-α), nitric oxide (NO) and thiobarbaturic acid reactive substances (TBARS) compared to the normal control group (p< 0.01). Rat receiving extract of any of the two doses of cranberry extract used in this study (75 and 150mg/kg.b.w.) showed a significant decrease in renal TNF-α, NO and TBARS compared to the group that received Diclofenac sodium (p< 0.01). Also, supplementation of vitamin C at (1g/k.g.b.w.) resulted in a significant decrease in renal TNF-α, NO and TBARS compared to the group that received Diclofenac sodium (p< 0.01). Tables 2 and 3 showed that oral administration
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Groups GSH
(mg %) SOD
(U/gm Hb) CAT
(U/gm Hb)
(I) Normal
1 % tween 80 23.64 ± 2.83 385.54 ± 18.65 95.22± 5.84
(II) Positive control
Diclofenac sodium (150 mg/kg.b.w) 8.90 ± 1.77* 167.25 ±9.24* 48.16 ± 4.41*
(III) Cranberry extract
(75 mg/kg.b.w.) 15.46 ± 2.17* 304.42 ± 11.68* 73.55 ± 4.08*
(IV) Cranberry extract (150mg/kg b.w.) 21.55 ± 3.06* 389.75 ± 21.38* 92.20 ± 4.59*
(V) Vitamin C (1g/kg,b.w) 19.80 ± 2.68* 360.32 ± 19.33* 80.05 ± 6.15* Diclofenac sodium was given orally as a daily dose of 150m/kg.b.w. It was given to all groups except the normal one. Cranberry extract and vitamin C were orally given daily for 3 weeks and the last dose of each was given 1 h before Diclofenac sodium administration. Blood samples were collected 24 h after Diclofenac sodium administration. Values are given as mean ± SD for groups of eight animals each. * Significantly different from normal group at p< 0.01

Table 3: Level of renal reduced glutathione (GSH) and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in normal and experimental groups of rats.
No. Groups GSH
(µg/mg of protein) SOD
(U/mg protein) CAT
(U/mg protein)
(I) Normal
1 % tween 80 11.6
± 1.87 15.49
± 1.03 21.89
± 2.78
(II) Positive
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It was given to all groups except the normal one. Cranberry extract and vitamin C were orally given daily for 3 weeks and the last dose of each was given 1 h before Diclofenac sodium administration. Blood samples were collected 24 h after Diclofenac sodium administration. Values are given as mean ± SD for groups of eight animals each. * Significantly different from normal group at p< 0.01.

Table ( 6 ) show values of mean tail DNA% (damage), tail length and tail moment of comets, Superscript letters indicate significant differences among different groups
Group T. L µm T.DNA% T.M -U
A 1.48
±0.03d 1.51
±0.06e 2.24
±0.13d
B 3.67
±0.09a 3.96
±0.09a 14.61
±0.67a
C 2.91
±0.04b 3.50
±0.13b 10.22
±0.41b
D 2.67
±0.08c 2.55
±0.07d 6.84
±0.36c
E 2.63
±0.04c 2.82
±0.04c 7.43
±0.18c
P-VALUE < 0.0001) if compared with negative control of rate. The groups of rats treated with 75 mg, 150 mg crane berry extracts and 500 mg vit. C showed that T. M-U highly significant decrease of levels when compared with positive control group (diclofenc groups) of rats ( P < 0.0001 ) . The treatment effect of 50 mg crane berry extracts was more pronounced than the effect of 75 mg crane berry

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