Diabetes Statistics Report

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Diabetes mellitus (DM) is identified as a metabolic disorder, directly involving the pancreas which has a chronic effect on the body in those who are diagnosed. The lack of insulin production and/or the body’s decreased ability to use insulin effectively is what leads to the disease process causing multiple body systems to undergo changes as a result (Shrivastava, 2013). DM can be classified into two categories: Type 1 or Type 2. The National Diabetes Statistics Report 2014, consensus that 29.1 million individuals (9.3%) of the U.S population have diabetes. Of the 29.1 million individuals, 21 million are diagnosed and 8.1 million are unaware that they have the disease. The racial and ethnic difference for people aged 20 years or older diagnosed …show more content…
Insulin production takes place within the pancreas; therefore destruction leads to the absence of insulin production. Exposure to viral infections involving human leukocyte antigen can trigger pathogenesis of the disease. Onset of symptoms may not occur until months or years of pancreatic beta cell destruction. Physiological changes with a sudden decrease in weight are typically noticed. The lack of insulin will cause the individual to depend on lifelong insulin therapy. Without therapy, severe ketoacidosis can develop. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a combining result of hyperglycemia, ketoacidosis, and dehydration. Electrolytes are severely depleted which can lead to hypovolemic shock and if untreated can result in death. Type 1 DM affects those in younger age, and its incidence is increasing in young children (Lewis, 2014, …show more content…
Over 90% of diabetic diagnosis account for type 2 DM. Unlike type 1 diabetes, the pancreas is still able to produce endogenous insulin, but there is not a sufficient amount being produced and/or the insulin is being misused by the body tissues. Being overweight or obese, having a genetic history and an increased age predisposes an individual to the development of type 2 diabetes. Several metabolic abnormalities occur during the development of type 2 diabetes: insulin resistance, loss of beta cell mass, inappropriate liver production of glucose, or alteration in the production of hormones and cytokines (Lewis, 2014,

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