Diabetes Mellitus And Periodontitis Case Study

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Diabetes mellitus and Periodontitis are thought to share a two-way relationship.
The link between these diseases has been extensively investigated 1, over a period of time with numerous publications of case reports, longitudinal studies, cross-sectional studies and literature reviews. Supporting the idea that poorly controlled diabetes increases the occurrence and progression of Periodontitis. On the other hand, periodontal diseases are more common with person(s) suffering from poor glycaemic control than in a non-diabetic patient. Indeed periodontal signs and symptoms are now recognized as the "sixth complication of Diabetes"

The mechanisms that explain this two-way relationship are not well understood due to its complexity.

The scope of
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Literature evaluated will cover four (4) main concepts

Diabetes Overview
Periodontal disease Overview
Understanding The 2-way relationship between Diabetes and Periodontitis
The association of periodontal treatment improving the blood glucose level of diabetic patient

What Is Diabetes?

Diabetes Mellitus is a chronic and serious metabolic disorder, that occurs when the body cannot produce enough insulin or cannot use insulin (1). It is diagnosed by observing raised levels of glucose in the blood. Insulin is a hormone produced in the pancreas; it is required to transport glucose from the bloodstream into the body's cells where it is used as energy. The lack, or ineffectiveness, of insulin in a person with diabetes means that glucose remains circulating in the blood. Over time, the resulting high levels of glucose in the blood (known as hyperglycemia) causes damage to many tissues in the body, leading to the development of disabling and life-threatening health
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The reasons for this are still unclear, but may be due to changes in environmental risk factors and/or viral infections.

Type 2 DM is the most prevalent form of diabetes, accounting for up to 90–95% of diagnosed cases of diabetes, and is on the rise [1]. In fact, about 90–95% of these cases will be in the type 2 diabetes classifications.
Type 2 diabetes is the most common type of diabetes. It usually occurs in adults but is increasingly seen in children and adolescents. In type 2 diabetes, the body is able to produce insulin but becomes resistant so that the insulin is ineffective. Over time, insulin levels may subsequently become insufficient. Both the insulin resistance and deficiency lead to high blood glucose levels.

Many people with type 2 diabetes remain unaware of their condition for a long time because the symptoms are usually less marked than in type 1 diabetes and may take years to be recognized. However, during this time the body is already being damaged by excess blood glucose. As a result, many people already have evidence of complications when they are diagnosed with type 2 diabetes (see Diabetes

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