Diabetes Mellitus : Diagnosis, Classification, And Pathophysiology

1346 Words Jan 4th, 2016 null Page
In 2013, it was estimated that there are 382 million cases of diabetes mellitus (DM) worldwide, including Type One and Type Two (Diabetes Mellitus: Diagnosis, classification, and pathophysiology, 2015). DM refers to a group of common metabolic autoimmune disorders that involve hyperglycemia, or an excess of glucose in the bloodstream. In all cases for Type One DM, and in some situations for Type Two, patients who are diagnosed must be insulin-dependent. Insulin is a hormone that is secreted by the beta cells of the pancreas; it promotes the cellular uptake of glucose into skeletal and cardiac muscles, as well as in adipose (connective fat) tissue. Insulin also decreases the physiologic production of glucose (mostly in the liver) and turns off destructive ketone production (Poisoning & drug overdose, 2015). This medication is essential for patients with Type One DM as it is the only efficient way to provide glycemic control and prevent serious complications such as DKA, or Diabetic Ketoacidosis. Patients with Type Two DM are usually not initially insulin-dependent, but may become so over time. Since the first diagnosis of diabetes, the overwhelming majority of patients have used a subcutaneous injection, or a shot given into the fat layer between the skin and muscle, to administer insulin (How to give a subcutaneous injection, 2015). According to Rewers and Chase (2013), nearly all children diagnosed with T1D receive a basal-bolus multiple daily injection treatment. This…

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