Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Model Of Cognitive Development

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Cognitive and neurological development refer to the development of the mind. Between birth and the age of 5 years, babies’ and children’s brains will undergo the most rapid changes. It is a time of rapid cognitive, linguistic, social, emotional and motor development (UNICEF, 2001). Oakley (2004) states that the word cognitive comes from the Latin word cognoscere, which means to know. Therefore cognitive activities all the psychological processes and activities involved in thinking and knowing. These include how information is acquired, processed and organised. Cognitive development is a study of how these processes develop in children and young people, and how they become more efficient and effective in their understanding of their word and their mental processes. As a child develops, their thinking changes. Birch (1989) states that cognitive development is a combination of both biological maturation and experience and practice (Cited in Oakley, 2004).
The connection of relationships and social interactions to cognitive development is
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Sabates and Dex (2012) have drawn on Bronfenbrenner’s (1979; 1986) ecological model of human development to distinguish between proximal factors which are the primary and immediate processes for influencing development in the day-to-day life of a child such as parent-child relationships, and distal factors in the immediate and wider context such as the school, community and wider socio-economic environment. They have also highlighted the central issue, that ‘children living in families with multiple risks are more likely to have long-term disadvantageous cognitive and behavioural consequences’. Learning in young children is socially mediated. Families, carers, peers and teachers are all important. Consequently, the quality of the learning environments created by families, schools and the wider culture is critical for children’s

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