Erikson’s Developmental Theory of Life Crises and Stages
Erik Erikson’s worldview saw that human development moved through eight stages that involved placing individuals in challenging developmental crisis (Berger, 2008). Each stage is characterized by two opposing outcomes an individual can achieve (Berger). Berger indicates these stages emphasize family and culture that continue through one’s life span.
In the infancy stage, trust vs. mistrust is characterized by trust developed from a nurturing caregiver (Berger, 2008). In the early childhood stage, autonomy vs. shame and doubt is based on a child asserting his will and its consequences (Berger). The play stage, initiative vs. guilt involves the concept that one’s play time builds initiative (Berger). Tate & Parker (2007) states Erikson’s school age stage, industry vs. inferiority, is characterized by the development of one’s ability to work and prosper. In the adolescence stage, identity vs. identity confusion involves an individual discovering his identity that will move him into adulthood (Tate & Parker). The young adulthood stage, intimacy vs. isolation, is characterized by a young adult finding the need for companionship