Determinants Of Stable And Peaceful Democracies Essay examples
A Comparison of India and Pakistan
Once part of the same dominion, India and Pakistan saw diverging political trajectories after partition in August 1947. Save for a period of emergency rule under Indira Gandhi between 1975-77, India is largely depicted as having successfully consolidated a stable and peaceful democracy. In contrast, Pakistan has alternated between military dictatorship and weak democracy characterised by violence. Comparing the trajectories of both nations after partition, this paper contends that while political institutions are important determinants in either impeding or supporting democratisation and ensuring peace, they must be appraised in relation to economic and cultural factors. This essay uses a nominal definition of democracy: a system of representative government with multiple political parties contesting in free and fair elections, the separation of powers and political institutions, in addition to civil liberties that impose accountability. Following, stability is expressed as the the capacity to stem outbreaks of violence, and thus prevent ethnic conflict.
The inheritance of British political structures and their impact on India and Pakistan offers an explanation as to why they differed in establishing stable and peaceful democracies. Despite superficially similar political structures, there existed significant differences in how the British prioritised and thus governed the region. In…