Descriptive Methods In Psychology

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The goal of any research is to obtain findings that are reliable and valid. The reliability of research should always be predictable. High validity also plays a huge role in the success of research. A measure displaying validity is concise, accurate, and shows a significant difference amongst the samples being studied. Another goal of research is to become published in scholarly journal, this process allows for peers to observe your research, help expand future studies, and allows for your research to be retested to ensure reliability. Research was conducted by Sylwester and Purver (2015) on the psychological differences between individuals of different political affiliations based on twitter. Researchers wanted to avoid the use of questionnaires …show more content…
First, the experimental method, which involves manipulation and control to examine a cause and effect relationships . Experimental methods help us make discoveries on the “why” of behavior. Conversely, descriptive methods take place in a more natural setting. Descriptive methods help researchers depict a person or group through direct observation. Sylwester and Purver (2015) used the descriptive method to collect data. Their methods would not apply to experimental methods because it did not require manipulation just the observation of twitter accounts. Researchers gathered accounts from both Republican and Democrats and separated them. The tweets were separated according to party affiliation and evaluated them according to predictions and stereotypes of each group.In addition to research, psychologists also face the challenge of operationally defining variables. By operationally defining definitions we can measure functions, events, or procedures physiologically or numerically. The experiment done by Sylwester and Purver (2015) characterized liberals as having an emphasis on their uniqueness, use of profane language, and tendency to be more anxious in their tweets than conservatives. Contrarily, conservatives were characterized as referencing achievement and religion in their …show more content…
Firstly, naturalistic observation applies when a person or an animal are observed in a natural setting. Typically with naturalistic observation the researchers just observe and record what takes place seeing if it compliments or goes against variables operationally defined. In naturalistic observation there are four types of participation techniques regarding naturalistic observation like overt participation, covert participation, overt non participation, and covert non participation. Case studies researchers study a single person, particular group, or an instance. Among case studies three are named as major categories one being psychometric case studies, archival case studies, and observational case studies. Case studies are a common form of idiographic research examining a specific instance. Case studies allows us to describe a person or event but it cannot demonstrate scientifically provide a reason why a particular group or person is mentally ill. The third descriptives method is the survey method . This method allows researchers to obtain information from a large number of people. Most common survey techniques are the questionnaire where people are questioned through mail, telephone, via internet, or personal interviews. Survey methods are beneficial to research because they reach a large number of participants but researchers cannot ensure the participants will answer

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