Describe the Main Developmental Tasks and Milestones Associated with Each Stage in Human Development over the Lifespan. Then Choose One Phase Only of Human Development and Discuss the Developmental Needs of People in This Stage. Discuss Various Sp...

2875 Words Sep 11th, 2006 12 Pages
The lifespan of a person is an awesome thing to behold. From birth completely dependent on others to later life where you care and look after your own children and grandchildren and watch them develop as your parents and grandparents watched you. From birth to death there are miraculous changes in each stage of development. Starting at the beginning is the newborn.

The Newborn (birth to 1 month) and Infant (1month to 1 year)

Developmental stages:
• Erikson's trust versus mistrust (Kail & Cavanaugh 2004:16)
• Piaget's sensorimotor stage (2004:19)
• Parent-infant bonding
• Foundation of language
• Foundation of locomotion

Many factors ensure the health of a newborn and infant, including the mother's health and age when
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Divorce, child abuse and blended families all have significant effects on children at this age. (Kail & Cavanaugh 2004:270-274)

The peer group becomes increasingly important to children as they become less dependent on their parents and more dependent on friends for help, loyalty, and sharing of mutual interests. (Kail & Cavanaugh 2004:277)

The Adolescent (12 years to 20 years)

• Developmental tasks: Early Adolescence (12-16): o Erikson's Identity versus Identity confusion (Kail & Cavanaugh 2004:16) o Physical maturation, o Piaget's Formal Operational thinking (2004:19) o Emotional development, o Membership in peer groups o Sexual relationships
• Later Adolescence (16-20): o Autonomy in relation to parents, o Sex-role identity, o Internalised morality o Career choice o Egocentricity: The Personal Fable and Imaginary Audience (2004:339) o Piaget's Formal Operational thinking (2004:19) o Kohlberg's Post-Conventional stage (2004:323)

By the end of adolescence, many young people can understand and create general principles and use scientific reasoning. For many adolescents, cognitive advancement is also reflected in their ability to reason morally.
However, Adolescent egocentrism tends to prevent teenagers from thinking rationally about their own experiences. Their feelings of invincibility and uniqueness may prompt them to underestimate risks, for example, with

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