Descartes's Development Of Psychology: The Evolution Of Learning And Education

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Since the inception of psychology in the United States by American philosopher William James, in the early 1900’s learning and psychology has been joined hand in hand together ever since. Well into the beginning of the twentieth century, learning and education has been monitored closely and connected to psychologists. According to (Domjan, 2014) Learning is one of our most primitive and basic biological mental processes that facilitates our need for survival and promotes personal well-being. Learning is a critical role in life and helps to improve how Homo sapiens and all basic organisms mold and adapt to their ever changing environment. Many times we assume that all our learning consists of unique special training but in fact much of our …show more content…
35) many important and influential people have made their mark on learned psychology over the last century. The first one who comes to mind is Rene` Descartes who lived from 1596 – 1650 he believed that the basic premise of people’s actions wasn’t decided through automatic or mechanistic natural laws. Descartes believed that all basic human behavior is learned completely through conscious free will and blatant intent. After a period of time Descartes himself started to make exceptions to the rule as he began to realize that people react to and do things in response to external stimuli within their environment (Reynolds, 2006, p. 22-39). With Descartes new outlook on his view on learning he devised a dualistic approach of human behavior he called Cartesian Dualism. Dualism is the fundamental separation of the mind and the body. When discussing the mind it was considered the study of theology: or spiritual. And the body was categorized as the complete proper study of the theology: spiritual feelings. Cartesian Dualism consisted of voluntary and involuntary behaviors. Involuntary behavior consisted of automatic stimulation through external stimuli and voluntary behavior does not require outside stimulus which occurs through the conscious intent and the person reacts in a certain way (Reynolds, 2006, p. …show more content…
53). These women were not allowed to hold faculty positions in schools and many times women were forced to take a more supposed suitable job in the field such as: school psychology, career counseling and clinical work. Many women today hold top positions in the field of psychology and help to pioneer new achievements as well, people like: Mary Whiton Calkins who was known for being the first women to be the president of American Psychological Association. She made many contributions in her field and studied at Harvard University (Reed, 2011, p. 53). Many basic fundamental behaviors and processes are and will remain important in our lives and every living organism’s lives today. Even today there is an influx of interest about all aspects of psychology and learning psychology. Many of these feelings are inspired by a newly found appreciation for the field and all the basic behavioral fundamental processes involved within it. This new

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