Demographic Transition Of India

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From the beginnings of India’s history, the demographics of the population have varied over the country’s diverse 29 states. The Indian subcontinent covers 3.28 million kilometers with the range of geography including the Deccan Plateau, an upland plain in the south, flat to rolling plains along the Ganges river, the Thar desert in the west, and the Himalayas in the north. India is the world’s second most populated country with 1.3 billion people and the population is growing rapidly, which is the cause of many of the country’s health issues. Overall, the total fertility rate is 2.45 children born per woman but this birth rate has been declining in recent decades due to the government’s advocacy for family planning. Infant and maternal mortality …show more content…
For these reasons, India is categorized in stage-three/late expanding demographic transition (Population Connection 2016). This demographic transition causes the population structure to change, resulting an aging population that faces many of the chronic health conditions that affect populations of developed countries, such as, diabetes, cancer, and cardiovascular disease (Kapilashrami 2000). India is experiencing a unique demographic transition because even though the country has experienced falling birth rates, they have not declined as rapidly as desired. Advancements in medicine have increased life expectancy while keeping the population healthy longer. This said, much of the issues facing India’s health care system revolve around a growing population that is outpacing economic and social …show more content…
For example, nationwide access to clean drinking water has improved by 94.1%. Sanitation access has improved by 62.6% in urban populations but only by 28.5% in rural populations, putting certain populations in India at higher risk for infectious disease. Typically, wealthier states have better water and sanitation facilities compared to poorer states. As a result, this unequal quality of infrastructure creates health disparities between urban and rural populations. Risks due to poor infrastructure include major food and waterborne diseases such as bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever, and vector borne diseases including dengue fever, Japanese encephalitis, and malaria. The government has created many public health initiatives to combat these prevalent diseases. For example, India has seen a decline in vaccine-preventable disorders due to the improvements in immunization coverage. Smallpox in the country is eradicated, with Guinea worm disease on the verge of eradication. While tuberculosis is still a major public health problem in India, the National Tuberculosis Control Program is expected to contain TB with a detection and cure rate of 70% and 85%, respectively (Kapilashrami 2000). In recent years, India’s Global Disease Detection (GDD) Regional Center has worked to build the capacity within local and regional public health entities to

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