Degenerative Joint Disease Case Study

Degenerative joint disease (Osteoarthritis) is a breakdown of cartilage inside a joint.

Common symptoms of Osteoarthritis are stiffness, pain and joint dysfunction (Better Health

Channel, 2016, para. 5). Glucosamine is an effective treatment for Osteoarthritis (Arthritis

Research, 2005, para. 3). The double-blind randomized clinical trial (RCT) conducted by

Hamid Reza Arti and Mohammad Ebrahim Azemi in 2012 drew attention to Alendronate.

Alendronate is known to have healing properties and known to treat Osteoporosis

(MedlinePlus, 2015, para. 1). The aim of the study was to compare the efficacy of

glucosamine alone and the combination of glucosamine and alendronate administration to

treat knee osteoarthritis in older adults aged between
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Participants symptoms were recorded via

the WOMAC questionnaire.

The main findings of the study supported the hypothesis. Bone spurs (Osteophytes) are also

known mechanisms of joint pain and causes a limits to normal joint range of movement or

stiffness (Felson et al., 2004, p. 100). Glucosamine is known to aid in the growth,

maintenance and repair of joint cartilage (Arthritis Foundation, 2016, para. 4). Osteophytes

are also prevented from forming in particular surfaces where they would normally cause

participants osteoarthritic pain. Glucosamine intervention reduced the pain and stiffness in

the majority of participants from Group 1 and Group 2 for this reason.

However, the addition of alendronate to glucosamine in Group 1 yielded better results in

the other areas that were tested. Firstly, Bone Mineral Density (BMD) improved in Group 1.

Only slight improvement was made in Group 2. This supports the hypothesis because Group

1 were administered a combination of glucosamine and alendronate and therefore it

appears Alendronate leads to an improved intervention for BMD than glucosamine alone.

Secondly, The function of joints in Group 1 improved after 12 weeks. Whereas there
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7). Given

Vitamin D and Calcium’s healing properties, it’s unlikely that Glucosamine and/or

Alendronate were able to achieve the pain and joint stiffness reductions alone. Therefore,

the degree in which Vitamin D and Calcium impacted the findings of the study is unknown. A

suggestion to avoid this co-intervention bias is to not administer vitamin D and/or Calcium

or any other additional healing agent to participants. This is likely to reduce the likelihood

that the results were impacted by the additional healing agents.

External validity refers to the degree results of the participants (sample) can be generalised

to the broader population. The more representative of the population the sample is the

more confidently the reader can generalise.

The range of ethnicity of participants is not accurately reflected in the study. If the

participants selected were of an urban location of high socioeconomic status with good

dietary habits and access to regular health care, then it is likely that the findings would not

be replicated for people of remote locations of low socioeconomic status with poor

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