Definitions And Concepts Of Coaching

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2. Literature Review
The purpose of literature review in this study is to critically analyse key literature and also aims to identify and filling any gaps within the literature that offer support to undertaking this study. This section will document and explicate the bodies of literature that is concerned with four parts, as follows:
2.1 Definitions and concepts of coaching
Coaching has a long history that dates back to ancient Greece which links to Socratic dialogue (Hughes, 2003) which Socrates believed that people can have the best learning when they take personal responsibility with their outcome (Edward, 2003). Later, the word “coaching” has been associated with supporting university students and academic attainment which is defined
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In summary, coaching is described as a developmental and managerial tool used in business today to unlock an employee’s potential to perform the best of their abilities that is focused on raising a coachee’s personal awareness, and it can be employed in a diversity of areas.
2.2 Coaching versus Mentoring
There are many different descriptions between coaching and mentoring which sometime it could be some confusing between coaching and mentoring (Jarvis, 2004). For example, Mullins 1999, cited in Berry, 2003 p.52 showed the different relationships is presented in Table 1.
Table1. The difference between coaching and mentoring
Coaching Mentoring
• Makes use of deductive techniques (drawing it out)
• The coach is not required to be an expert on the
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Generally mentoring is in an organisation taking place by a senior employee used their expertise, wisdom and advice to guide the career path with a junior employee (Peltier, 2001), and the mentor often plays many roles, such as role model, being a friend, trusted advisor, and counsellor which he or she volunteer their time and resources to mentees (Gray, 2006). The difference of mentoring and coaching is that Mentoring will consider someone who is an expert in their particular field within an organisation whereas coach is not need an expert (Jarvis, 2003). The Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development in the UK (2008) shows that coaching is more short-term process focussing on specific fields, while mentoring is a more long-term process taking the broader view on the person in the

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