Defining And Briefly Discuss The Significance Of The Philosophy Of Science

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1. Define and briefly discuss the significance of the following five terms. In this discussion, please make sure to explain why the terms are important to the development of the philosophy of science. (Five points each, 25 total)

1. Final (or teleological) cause The final cause is “that for the sake of which a thing is done” (13). The final cause of a soup bowl is: holding soup so that it can be eaten. The final cause is an integral component of Aristotle’s explanation of why the world is how it is. Scientists (artists) understand the causes that lie beneath the mundane understanding of common people. A bricklayer understands the ratios of ingredients needed to make strong mortar; a scientist understands why the ingredients cause the mortar to be strong. In regards to the development of the philosophy of science, establishing the concept of a final cause created a base on which the “whys” of the world could be explored. 2. Incidental cause An incidental cause is that which causes something not for the “proper” and expected reason. An example of an incidental cause is: the very tall woman played the lute. This is an incidental cause because the fact that the woman was very tall is disconnected from the fact that she was playing the lute. It was incidental chance that caused the woman to be tall, not her lute playing. In his quest to form scientific explanations for the world’s workings, Aristotle faced the task of explaining the unknown, sometimes…

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