Cross Cultural Differences In Intercultural Communication

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Owing to the paradigm shifts in the teaching and learning of foreign languages, the focus of the area has been directed towards the social aspects of the phenomenon following the behaviorist and cognitivist stances. This shift in the paradigm has brought about the question of the individual, society and therefore, culture inevitably in relation to their effects on the learning process.
Having words such as “international”, “intercultural” or “diversity” in the content of many courses nowadays, language courses have also been affected by the necessity to equip learners with intercultural communication skills, which may well be counted as one of the primary goals of teaching a foreign language. This naturally takes language learners to a point
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Cross-Cultural Adaptation
According to Kim (2001), cross-cultural adaptation refers to a learner’s ability which enables him or her to interact effectively with a given host culture, enabling him to communicate with a foreign culture by altering his own cultural ways of socialization (Kim, 1988). This way, cross-cultural sensitivity is fostered, which results in successful intercultural communication (Cole & Zuengler, 2003).
Cross-Cultural Adaptation Theory holds that the alterations mentioned above result from the stress and the process of adaptation caused by the unfamiliar culture. When the personal and cultural aspects are communicated by the sojourner with the components of the new culture (people, media etc.), it is acquired more successfuly and this process is also connected to the loss of or attention towards the systems within the old culture. The host environment acts as the moderator of the adaptation process in this context and the level of tolerance towards “the newcomer” may vary in different cultures (Kim, 1995; 2001). Kim (2001) also states that the adaptation process as a whole takes place through interaction. In a similar vein, according to Begley (2003), intercultural communication has cross-cultural adaptability as a crucial and integral
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According to Noels et al. (1996), intercultural adaptation has a positive correlation with linguistic confidence, which has a significant effect on L2 proficiency. Masgoret and Ward (2006) also indicate that there is a close relationship between socio-cultural adaptation and proficiency in language. Cross-cultural adaptation is also related to the integrative motivation of language learners, which is considered to have a stronger effect on achievement in language learning (Gass & Selinker, 2008), in that it is positively associated with increased intercultural contact and fewer problems in socio-culturally different environments (Masgoret & Gardner, 2003; Ward and Kennedy, 1993). Therefore, it can be said that cross-cultural adaptability should also be studied within the context of L2

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